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The purpose of this page is for you to be able to post your research and/or questions with regard to the Bosnia portion of the videoconferencing unit. Please be sure to "save" after each posting. Also, keep in mind...only one person can be posting at a time...so...as soon as you are done log off of that page. We will use all of the information that you post in creating our web portal at the end of the conference. Please feel free to contact me with any questions. :) Ms. Caine

Link to Dr. Pettigrew's Web Page:
http://home.southernct.edu/~pettigrewd1/index.html
Link to Dr. Pettigrew's essay: "The Geography of Genocide in Eastern Bosnia," http://www.instituteforgenocide.ca/the-geography-of-genocide-in-eastern-bosnia/#more-1051

Link to an article on the BBC news website looking at the break up of Yugoslavia in the the early 90s and the historical legacy of Tito:
http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/europe/8636034.stm

I found this helpful website that talks about the 8 stages of genocide and gives examples of them In different genocides.

This gives examples of different genocide and how they connect to the 8 stages. I found this information very helpful and good

for the future when you need to find connections of genocide to the 8 stages. 8 stages connections and explanations- Roisin Wiley

This is a picture of a mass grave or the Bosnian's killed in it's genocide.As you can see there are hundreds of people praying to the dead.

Each year there is a ceremony held in honor of the people killed in the Bosnian genocide, this is one of these memorials.- Roisin Wiley

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This is a picture of the different ethinticites of the area. ARaguso
This is a picture of the different ethinticites of the area. ARaguso

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An Islamic lady mourns at a graveyard for a lost one. This lost one was killed for no reason other than the relgion that he/she practice, Islam. Notice the islamic symbol on the gravestone. ~ Aorlando


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I think that this is an interesting picture; it is a UN official meeting with survivors of the genocide, and you are able to see the graves in the backround as well as the grief on the people's faces. -Alyssa Raguso

Just some background information on Bosnia. Bosnia's location is in southeastern Europe and it borders the Adriatic Sea, and Croatia. The size of this area can be compared to West Virginia, a state in the United States. The terrain of Bosnia is composed of mostly mountains and valleys. The climate of Bosnia consists of warm summers, and very cold winters. The current population of Bosnia is now over 4 million people, and the majority of these people are practicing Muslims. While 40% of the population are Muslim, 31% of Bosnia is Orthodox and 15% are Roman Catholic, while the other 14% consists of other religions. The capital of Bosnia is Sarajevo. - Arthur Porto

An overview on the Bosnian genocide. In 1991 there were 4 million people living in Bosnia-Herzegania. 44% Bosnian Muslim, 31% Serb, 17% Croat, and 8% Yugoslav. On April 5, 1992 the governor of Bosnia declared its independence from Yugoslavia. This created a conflict that led to the death of 100,000 civilians. 80% of which were Bosniaks.
-Brennan Hoban
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I found this picture very interesting just as a visual to see how many people were killed in the gencoide. This is one of the many memorials that have been dedicated to the genocide. It is only a small portion of this memorial with the names of the many victims. You can see the back of a womn with her hands making a gesture. The women is what made the picture stand out to me. Even though you cannot see her face you can imagine her pain and her grief for those she is mourning.--Courtney Dempsey

The Bosnian Genocide was a result of a conflict between the three main ethnic groups, the Serbs, Croats, and Muslims in the Republic of Bosnia-Herzegovina. The Serbs were the Orthodox Christians, the Croats were the Catholics, and the Muslims were the ethnic Albanians. Much of these conflicts were becaue each claimed mistreatment towards one another and the religious hatred in order to gain power. After much conlict the the Croats were taken over and the Serbs took overall power. They wanted to eliminate the Muslims. To go into further detail of the eliminationa great website to look at is......... http://www.historyplace.com/worldhistory/genocide/bosnia.htm - Roisin Wiley
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Bosnia emerged from the break up of Yugoslavia. ---- The Serbs wanted to "erase" the Muslims from their world. The Serbs destroyed schools and mosques. On the ruins of these buildings the Serbs built Serbian Orthodox Churches. Perhaps the Serbs thought that maybe one day the Muslims would become too powerful and the Serbs dint want this to occur.
I think this is a great website because it talks about before the genocide and after the genocide, it might be helpful, check it out!
http://www.ppu.org.uk/genocide/g_bosnia.html
When Bosnia attempted to secede from Yugoslavia , Serbia invaded, claiming it was there to “free” Serbian Orthodox Christians living in Bosnia who were being “mistreated” by the Bosnian Muslims. Between April 1992 and November 1995, Serbia set out to “ethnically cleanse” Bosnian territory by removing all Bosnian Muslims. Serbia, together with ethnic Bosnian Serbs, attacked Bosnian Muslims with former Yugoslavian military equipment and surrounded Sarajevo(capital city). Many Bosnian Muslims were driven into concentration camps where women and girls were systematically gang-raped and other civilians were tortured, starved and murdered. In the course of the war as many as 1 million Muslims in Bosnia were forced to flee their homes.You can find a lot more of great info on this website: http://www.hmh.org/ed_Genocide_Bosnia.shtml
--United States Congress passed a resolution declaring that "the Serbian policies of aggression and ethnic cleansing meet the terms defining genocide" I think it should be considered a genocide and I am glad that the US recognized it as well!
The Bosnian Muslims did, at times, attempt to rebel. (information thanks to Dr. Pettigrew) They even created schools and teachers developed classes for children that would take place in the stairwells (under the concrete stairs) in the apartment buildings since that space provided some relative degree of safety. The kids would remain safely tucked under the stairways and the teachers would run from apartment building to apartment building to meet with the students! (These were called "Schools Under the Stairs") – I think that is fascinating! At time so horrible like this people still cared a lot about education. People went to such measures to ensure that children were getting the education necessary. I think that is great! --- Alyssa Raguso

The Tensions in Yugoslavia
In World War II, Yugoslavia was divided amongst the groups known as the Chetniks, the Partisans and the Ustasha. Communist Josef Tito led the Partisans (supported communism, the Soviets and were anti-Axis) in battles against the Croatians who supported Fascism, and later the Chetniks, an organization of Serbs who favored monarchy. The Ustasha, another group of Croatians lead under Ante Pavelic, followed Nazi Germany in creating concentration camps to contain Serbs, and converted them to Catholicism from Orthodox Christianity. Since World War II, Josef Tito was recognized as the leader of the newly united nation of Yugoslavia, who led it under a communist reign. Tensions began to build between the Muslims, Croatians and Serbs living in Yugoslavia, but could not turn into aggression under Tito. Once Tito died in 1980, nobody had come to succeed Tito, leaving the different parts of Yugoslavia on their own. Eventually, Serbia, Croatia, Slovenia and Macedonia declared independence from Yugoslavia in around 1990, allowing the world to recognize them as individual powers. Serbia's president, Slobodan Milosevic, stressed that the territory of former Yugoslavia was rightfully Serbia's, and was angered by the secession by the Croats, and invaded Croatia, along with the coordinated efforts of the Croatian Serbs, who already lived in Croatia, and revolted inside Croatia. Serbia was able to seize about 1/3 of Croatia's land, and drove many Croatians out of their homes,. However, Croatia launched a counter offensive known as "Operation Storm" in which they drove the Croatian Serbs out of their homes, and seized back a lot of land that was taken by Serbia. Bosnia then soon declared its own independence, causing further Serbian aggression and invasion. While rushing through and seizing Bosnian cities this time, the Serbs tried to persecute and slaughter all the Muslims in each town. The towns were usually predominantly Muslim, so this provided the Serbs with more Muslims to kill, compared to the number of Muslims in Serbia. They claimed that the Islam religion was almost like a "disease" and they had to stop others from being "infected." Many Bosnian Serbs also suffered from the genocide, because the Muslims in the town tried to take their anger out against their oppressors, and made life difficult for the Serbs already living with them. A lot of great information can be found in the article, "Genocidal Violence in Former Yugoslavia: Bosnia Herzegovina and Kosovo" by Martin Mennecke, and other sites such as http://www.cbv.ns.ca/dictator/Tito.html and http://www.ppu.org.uk/genocide/g_bosnia.html
-Andrew L

Women in the War and Throughout the Genocide
So I found one of the main ways that the Serbs terrorized women throughout the war, like in many other cases, was rape. And the problem is, many women still have not gotten justice for these crimes. "During the war, thousands of women and girls were raped, often with extreme brutality; many were held in prison camps, hotels, private houses where they were sexually exploited. Many women and girls were killed," said Nicola Duckworth, director of Amnesty International's Europe and Central Asia Programme. The women want more trials and prosecution for the crimes against them, which occurred throughout the war, and the genocide. The main problem that I have read about is that women lack access to social benefits and they suffer with discrimination. This is different to some other wars, where women have been compensated for their suffering. Rape is physical abuse, but the emotional abuse lasts a lifetime. When they needed help, the authorities in Bosnia and Herzegovina failed to provide these women with access to adequate health care or psychological support. There are non-government organizations, but they are not able to reach out to all of the women; this problem wasd widespread to all age groups during the war. Their psychological conditions are preventing them from living life normally day to day. The mental and emotional stress is way too much to handle. When The International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY), in 1993, about 18 cases were prosecuted. And in 2005 twelve more men were convicted. On this website http://srebrenica-genocide.blogspot.com/2009/10/bosnian-genocide-rape-victims-suffer-in.html, I gained most of my information from many actual accounts and lots of information on how women were treated in the war.
- Casey McMahon

Of those who were killed in the genocide, 92% of these people were men who got tourted and killed in large numbers at the detention camps. The other 8% were women who got raped and died. The reason that Muslim families flee Bosnia is because of fear and this fear mainly came from people witnessing women being raped. It disturbed a person mentally in such a huge way that they can no longer see the person in the same way and feels a strong need to leave an area.
-Koko T.

End of the Genocide

The Bosnian War was officially ended on December 14, 1995 which also put an end to the genocide. It was signed by the presidents of Croatia, Serbia, and Bosnia after a month of negotiations. It followed the beginning of NATO bombing of Serbian forces on August 30, 1995, and the United States military advising and supporting the Bosnian Muslims after September 1994. The treaty created the nation of Bosnia-Herzegovina. However, the treaty divided the nation into two political entities. The Bosnian Serbs who assisted Serbia in massacring Bosnian Muslims and attacking Muslim cities were somewhat unjustly given 49% of the territory in the entity of Republika Srpska. The Muslim Bosnians and Croats (ethnic Croatians in Bosnia), were given 51% of Bosnia-Herzegovina to rule as the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina. The entities each would have their own military and government, but international policies and banking would be run by the central administration of Bosnia-Herzegovina. The treaty forced participants to recognize the natural rights and freedoms of humans, but did nothing to issue punishment for the genocide which would later have to be carried out in UN war trials of Serbian political and military leaders. More information can be found at http://www.balkandevelopment.org/edu_bos.html and http://www.historycommons.org/context.jsp?item=western_support_for_islamic_militancy_2109
-Grant Cohen

Detention Camps:
Just like the Nazis imprisoned the Jews in the Concentration Camps, the Serbs encamped Muslims and non-Serbs in Detention Camps. They were usually overcrowded and the prisoners were underfed, beaten and tortured. Bosnian Muslims and non-Serbs women were often sexually abused. Often they were raped in front of their family members in their private homes or in the open, in front of the other villagers. Gang rape was common and there were instances when women and girls were held captive for weeks and months, and used as sex slaves. Bosnian Genocide Detention Camps
-Carina Martusevici


Genocide Denial
**http://bgdw.wordpress.com/** I found this website and thought it was very interesting. This man James Luko who is a former ‘human rights investigator’ denies that the events that took place in Bosnia should be considered a genocide. He knows that the events took place and he understands the injustices committed, but Luko does not belive that it should considered a genocide. This reinforces the fact that it is a genocide because the final stage of genocide in the Eight Stages is denial. This website is very interesting and shows many deniers of the Bosnian genocide.
- Stephen Sorgi


These are current events that show that people are still in denial. They will never admit that what had occurred in Bosnia is genocide. And those who are denying aren’t just Serb officers that committed this war crime but newspaper companies that say that there was no Bosnian genocide. Human rights groups are in the process to sue companies, such as the Swiss News. I don’t understand how people can question the statistics and the witnesses and survivors. Why would survivors be more driven to dedicate there whole life for the protection of human rights? Why would they talk about their nightmares if it wasn’t real? These people are trying to prevent genocide because they know that it happened and don’t want anymore people to go through what they had to. So I think that denying is offending the survivors who work in order to stop genocide. It’s like calling them liars and that just isn’t fair.

-Koko T.

http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=-608870818727268084#

This video depicts the Bosnian Genocide from the perspective of a Bosnian Refugee who endured these horrors at the age of three.
- Alex Evans

I found a timeline that summarizes the main events in Bosnia leading up to the genocide
http://selenasol.com/selena/struggle/bosnia_timeline.html
-Stephen Sorgi
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This first political cartoon represents the evil of the Bosnian Genocide. This second one shows Ratko Mladic with skulls behind him. He contributed greatly to the genocide and is still running around somewhere today with rewards in multiple countries for finding him or giving up important information regarding him.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=X-DUsQyklUM&feature=related

^^^This link leads to a series of videos from a firsthand account of the Bosnian genocide.^^^

http://www.reuters.com/article/idUSTRE6443F320100505 Here's a recent article on Bosnian Serbs in court concerning the genocide
- tpalmieri http://www.upi.com/Top_News/Special/2010/05/11/Serbia-finds-Kosovo-Albanian-mass-grave/UPI-50341273605981/


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I chose this political cartoon because it shows a plane dropping all the terms of the problems or the politicians involved in Bosnia Genocide as bombs. The plane represents the bloody war and all the terms represent everything that was involved with Bosnia Genocide. The terms or names listed are Bosnia, Gorazde, Serbia, Sarajevo, Unprofor, Croatia, Moslems, Ethnic Cleansing and Embargo.
- Eddie Brunsden

"Safe" Areas
In the spring of 1993, in the midst of the ethical cleansing led by the Serbs, The UN Security council set aside Sarajevo, Goradze, Srebrenica and three other Bosnian Muslim cities as safe areas. These territories were in the middle of Serb-controlled territory. These safe areas were devastatingly unsuccessful. They were lacking food, medical supplies, and other necessities because the Serbs did not allow UN aid into the areas, and were often in danger of being bombed by the enemy. Thousands of refugees fled to the enclaves (an area surrounded by land that is ruled by another area). The move to the enclaves was a controversy in itself because it acknowledged the ethical cleansing that was taking place in surrounding areas and the success it had on its victims. That was not the worst part about the safe areas. Between July 11 and July 19, 1995; Bosnian Serbs entered Srebrenica, an area that was basically under siege, and moved all women, children and elderly out of the territory on buses and systematically slaughtered all boys and men. The men and boys were either executed, or shot in mass shootings and then moved to mass graves. The UN soldiers or the international protectors put up no fight. Not even a shot was fired from their guns, although there were 400 armed Dutch soldiers in the area at the time. The same actions occurred to the remaining 5 protected areas. The Srebrenica massacre was the largest mass killing in Europe since World War II.
-Annie Carforo for more information and pictures, visit http://srebrenica-genocide.blogspot.com/

Gendercide
Gendercide is a "gender-selective" mass murder. In genocide people discriminate people becuase of their race or religion but in a gendercide people are discriminated simply because of their gender. Some people say that what occured in Bosnia was a gendercide as well because the Serbs attacked men in particular. The people who support this idea are correct because for something to be a gendercide there must be a clear distincition in percentages of male and female casualities. International officials say that 92% of the casualtites were men and the other 8% being women. Under the command of General Ratko Mladic Syme men and women were seperated when they were sent to the death camps. Old men were killed on the spot they did not even get to the concentration camps. At these camps, women were mostly raped and men were toutured to death. According to records no man surived the Serb camps out of the 764 people. After the genocide we see that the Serbs were targeting "battle-aged" men. These men were all healthy and between the ages of 18-55. By killing all the men the Bosnian Muslims will not be able to force any type of army therefore enabling them to fight back if they decide to do so.
-Koko T.


Slobodan Milosevic
Milosevic was the president of Yugoslavia and was the president of Serbia at the time of the Bosnian genocide. He was a strong nationalist who strived for “a better Serbia.” He played off of Serbian nationalist beliefs to dehumanize the Muslims and had news sources building up a hatred for them. Milosevic’s goal was to completely remove all traces of Muslim existence in the region that had been Yugoslavia. However, many civilians did not share Milosevic’s view of the Muslims. Serbs, Croats, and Muslims all lived together peacefully in Bosnia’s capital Sarajevo. Milosevic had the city surrounded and the residents were stuck inside the city for years as fighting and bombings took place in and around the city. Mosques were demolished as well as libraries and monuments- anything that had traces of Muslim existence had to go. The Yugoslav People’s Army was controlled by Milosevic and became like his version of Hitler’s Nazis. They forced Muslims and Croatians to flee their homes, raping women to ensure that they would not return. People were taken away and buried in mass graves along and even in the River Drina. Camps were set up where prisoners were held and treated similar to those held in concentration camps in World War II.

Several massacres took place in Kosovo where Albanians were victimized. Milosevic refused to sign an agreement giving freedom back to Kosovo and had the Albanians expelled from Kosovo. As over 1 million Albanians fled to the mountain and hill around Kosovo, their towns were raided and burned by the Serbian troops.
The rest of the world couldn’t stand by any longer and NATO had Belgrade bombed, causing Milosevic to finally surrender.
Milosevic was charged of war crimes and crimes against humanity. He was charged for genocide. In 2006, Milosevic died while being held in his cell, ending the Milosevic trial without a verdict.


Srebrenica

Srebrenica was designated a safe area by the UN and 600 Dutch peacekeepers protected the area, so many people that had fled their homes came to Srebrenica. The people of Srebrenica were told that they could trust the peacekeepers to keep them safe. But Srebrenica was attacked by the Serbs. The Dutch had asked the UN for air support, but by the time their request had been approved the attacked had died down so the air strike wasn’t needed at the time. The Dutch soldiers promised town leaders an air strike if the Serbs were not out of Srebrenica by the net morning. When the Serbs hadn’t gone, Dutch Colonel Karremans received word at 9:00a.m. that the request for the NATO airstrike had been submitted on the wrong form. The planes had to refuel and didn’t come until 2:30 that afternoon where they dropped two bombs on Serb forces surrounding Srebrenica. More airstrikes were put off when the Serbs threatened to kill the Dutch soldiers that they were holding hostage and shell the refugees. Mladic entered Srebrenica and basically told Colonel Karremans that if the Muslims wanted to live, they would have to hand over their weapons.

Meanwhile, over 20,000 more refugees had been coming to Srebrenica. The next day after the airstrikes, 23,000 women were taken out of Srebrenica while men ages 12-77 were separated out by the Serbs who claimed it was for interrogation. They were held in trucks and warehouses. 15,000 Bosnian Muslims were shelled as they ran through the mountains trying to escape. Over 8000 boys and men were blindfolded and shot in warehouses, then buried in mass graves. The UN peacekeepers were seen drinking champagne with general Mladic and did nothing to prevent the murders of those 8000 people.


--Jen Cimons

Many things went wrong when other countries and organizations were intervening. First when the United Nations had reports that showed that their plans were failing. They have created safe areas, such as one in Srebrenica, for the Bosnian Muslims. Now the UN had to think of new more efficient ways to keep the people safe. But the UN did not understand why their plan has failed. They found that during there research all the information wasn’t known to the officials at the UN who created the policy.
-Koko T.





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The Serbian denials are clearly just a bunch of evil lies created by people that
have murder written all over them. As shown in the picture, groups of people are
digging one of the many mass graves in Bosnia. Thousands of bodies were buried
in mass graves to get rid of the evidence, and were even moved to other secret burial
to deny the killings. Unfortunately, nearly all of the bodies could not be distinguished
and identification of the bodies could not be found. Over 20,000 people were reported
missing, and it is now up to science to find out if DNA samples can match remains
that people have kept, believing that they were the remains of their own family. Even
when the scene of the burial sites are emotional and sickening, a pathologist working
on the exhumations says "The worst part of the job is meeting families and people in
despair". - Arthur Porto

The Bosnian muslims were not treated as individuals but as a group. Serb soldiers buried the people in mass graves. This helped the soliders because if they gave every person they killed a personal grave then they would notice that they killed many people. To hide the number of people that they killed, they buried them in mass graves. To this day mass graves are being found. People are trying to separate the bones of each person and preserve them or give them a proper burial. There are some cases where families were able to find the skeleton of their loved ones. This almost never occurs, but the sheer amount of mass graves is astonishing.- Koko T.
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Serbs were told to bury the muslims in the mass graves and if they disagreed they will be killed on the spot.


These pictures show the brutality and emotional distress of the Bosnian Genocide. Although these images are gruesome, I chose them because they greatly depict what it would have been like to live in Bosnia at the time.

THESE PICTURES ARE QUITE DISTURBING SO PLEASE DO NOT CLICK ON THE LINK BELOW IF YOU WILL FIND THESE IMAGES TOO HORRIFIC TO VIEW


http://www.srpska-mreza.com/WarCrime/lm53/LM53.html

- Alex Evans

Another website with quite GRAPHIC IMAGES regarding the genocide, so it is not for the weak of heart.

http://real-bosnian-genocide.blogspot.com/

-Philippe Kimura-Thollander

The Serbians used a strategy called "gendercide" to attempt to exterminate the muslims. By separating them into groups, they tried to prevent the men from revolting, by killing or detaining all males that were from 18 to 55 years old. Below this post, Mark Danner describes the sytem in which the Serbs strategized their evil plot against the innocent Muslim victims. - Arthur Porto

"1. Concentration. Surround the area to be cleansed and after warning the resident Serbs -- often they are urged to leave or are at least told to mark their houses with white flags -- intimidate the target population with artillery fire and arbitrary executions and then bring them out into the streets.
2. Decapitation. Execute political leaders and those capable of taking their places: lawyers, judges, public officials, writers, professors.
3. Separation. Divide women, children, and old men from men of "fighting age" -- sixteen years to sixty years old.
4. Evacuation. Transport women, children, and old men to the border, expelling them into a neighboring territory or country.
5. Liquidation. Execute "fighting age" men, dispose of bodies. " - Arthur Porto

The first person to provide a hint of the extent of the killings was an American reporter, who risked his life to look for evidence and indeed was eventually arrested. He was awarded a Pulitzer prize for his Bosnian journalism. He was at risk not only from the Serbs but also from NATO, who resumed their air attacks. I found this information very interesting.
- Eddie Brunsden

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I really like this cartoon because its shows how the genocide affects Bosnians. Since Yugoslavia was divided into
different parts, Bosnia was attacked by the Serbs. They were massacred by the Serbs, and now they can't really be
sure if they can really consider themselves as Bosnian Serbs or what the Serbs want them to be, the Serbian
Bosnians who are pretty much under their control. This cartoon can also refer to the division of Yugoslavia and how
dividing Yugoslavia into different parts was somewhat completely pointless because all the cultures are distinctly
different from eachother that the division wasn't even needed- Pamela T.

I found the following quote from the Genocidal Violence in the Former Yugoslavia: Bosnia Herzegovina and Kosovo extremely interesting. "The fact that hundreds of thousands of Kosovo Albanians were deported by the Serbs via trains and trucks to the border of Albania or Macedonia speaks against an intent to destroy the group." When I first read this quote I couldn't help but notice the similarities between what was occurring here and what occurred during the Holocaust. Obviously there are some differences, namely the intent of the Serbs during this process wasn't to kill the Serbs and also that the Kosovo Albanians' forced destination wasn't a concentration camp. On the other hand this process of loading up human beings and cramming them into trucks or trains is really degrading those people to the level of mere animals. While the article goes on to mention that, because the intent of the Serbs was just to deport the Kosovo Albanians and not destroy them, these sequences cannot be called a genocide. I disagree because its not as if this gesture was made with the Albanians rights in mind it was in order to rid the country of the Albanians and it sparked the hostilities that served as a precursor to the genocidal events to follow.
-Kevin Teahan

The Sarajevo Tunnel


The Sarajevo Tunnel was constructed in 1993 by the Muslim citizens of Bosnia. The tunnel was framed under the tarmac of Sarajevo International Airport and allowed for the efficient transportation of food, medicine, and military supplies during the Bosnian Genocide. The tunnel extended for some 800 meters. The tunnel was 1.5 meters wide and on one side, there was a live electricity cable which provided the Muslims with power. On the other side, there was an oil pipeline which provided the Muslims with fuel. Although the airport was usually closed due to artillery fire, the Muslims were able to obtain various supplies through the use of the tunnel. The wounded were also transported through the tunnel to Bosnian free territory. People such as the former Bosnian President, Alija Izetbegovic, were transported through the tunnel in wheel chairs to safety. The tunnel existed for quite a while until Serbian forces discovered it and bombarded both ends with siege artillery. Today, only 20 meters of the tunnel exist due to the intense shelling by Serbian forces. Many citizens of Sarajevo still state to this day that without the Sarajevo Tunnel, people would have suffered even more than they did.

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/1280328.stm

A Special Thanks to Dr. Pettigrew for providing this website:

http://home.southernct.edu/~pettigrewd1/SarajevoTunnel.html

- Alex Evans

http://rawstory.com/news/afp/Srebrenica_was_not_genocide_Bosnian_04272010.html
This link leads to an article explaining about how the leader of the Republic of Srpska still believes that there was no genocide committed by the Serbs. This article is almost 20 years from when the genocide in Bosnia occurred. It makes me very angry that the Serbs are still in denial for the cruel things that they did. They remind me of children lying to their parents, but much more evil obviously. The UN has make them admit of the genocide because there is so much evidence of the genocide occurring. If the UN would be more helpful in genocides, mass killings, like what happened with the Bosnian genocide, would decrease.
-Eddie Brunsden

I found a site on the internet that has the page of what a genocide is from the U.N, what can be signs of a genocide, and how it is punishable and what measures can be taken against it. It is called the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide. I have read it over, and I think that the U.N. has not really followed this Convention page of their own. There has been proof of genocides with the factual evidence of mass killings, mental harm, work areas of inhumane condition, and other crimes, but sometimes even all of this evidence won't fit their definition of a genocide. Even if the U.N. does not consider an event a genocide, there should still be an effort to stop the genocide. The site that contains the convention is http://www.hrweb.org/legal/genocide.html. - Arthur Porto

There is a movie I have seen, "Behind Enemy Lines" which gives a pretty good depiction of the Bosnian Genocide from the point of view of a US fighter pilot who was shot down in his jet by Serbian army missiles. It is roughly based off of a true story, but it contains a lot of factual information regarding the Bosnian Genocide. If you like war/action movies you will enjoy watching the movie.
-Grant Cohen

Here's the link on IMDB for the review and synopsis of the movie- http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0159273/

Friend or Foe?
The Dutch that were in Bosnia to help actually accidentally aided the Bosnian Serbs in committing the genocide in Srebrenica. The Dutch military forces wore blue peace-keeping helmets to identify themselves. At one point the Serbs wore these blue peace-keeping helmets and tricked those who escaped into handing themselves over to the enemy. Following turning themselves over, the separation of the men, women and children would begin. Once the men were separated from the women and children, the men were killed after the women and children sent away in buses. So when the escapees thought they were going to be saved, they actually were putting themselves in danger of getting killed (men).
-Kevin Ryan
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even though this cartoon says Darfur it is so true about Americans and the media. if this was Bosnia the TV would be even smaller. When Dr. Stanton talked about how the genocides only got 5 mins of air time when O.J. Simpson got over 48hrs worth of air time. --Courtney Dempsey

http://www.washington-report.org/backissues/0995/9509028d.html
Very interesting article. It's from 1995 when the Bosnian genocide was going on. It makes me happy that there were at least some people out there, like this author, who knew what was going on and tried to create awareness for it. ~Aorlando

THE DAYTON AGREEMENT
Bosnian Genocide
The Dayton Agreement was a conference that took place November 1-21, 1995. Many of the world powers especially USA and Russia applied a great deal of pressure to get the 3 representatives from the warring sides to come to the conference in Dayton, Ohio. his peace agreement, known officially as the "General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina" was signed in Paris in December 1995. The three representatives was the Serbian President, Slobodan Milosevic, the Croatian President franjo Tudman and the Bosnian president, Alija Izetbegovic. The Dayton Agreement called for new boundaries for Bosnia and Herzegovina, but kept these two republics as a single country with internationally recognized exterior boundaries that were the same as before the war and new internal boundaries
significantly realigned. The internal boundaries divided up the country into areas where one ethnicity was more predominant than another.

The Dayton Agreement covered a wide variety of important topics including military aspects, regional stabilization, inner entity boundary (which is what I explained above very generally), elections, constitution, human rights, refugees and displaced people, preservation of national monuments, public corporations and international police task forces. There are so many agreements under each of these categories. This is a great website that goes more into depth with the topics I listed. It is really informative…
http://www.pbs.org/newshour/bb/bosnia/dayton_peace.html

-Annie Carforo
external image moz-screenshot-10.jpgI Just found this fairly recent short article regarding the denial of the Bosnia Genocide by a Swiss newspaper. This denial is contrary to the finding of the International Court of Justice in 2007. The newspaper is being sued for this statement by a human rights group. I never knew that a newspaper could be sued for something like this when they are really stressing an opinion right or wrong. The fact that this article was updated less than a month ago shows how the aftermath of the Bosnia genocide is ongoing in present day
Swiss Newspaper denial
-Kevin Teahan

I found a story on a survivor of the Bosnian genocide, told by a man named Hasan Nuhanovic. I thought it was a very sad story, but it shows what not one, but thousands had to live through during this time. Hasan loses his family during the genocide, and does not even know what happened to them from this date. The link is http://www.pbs.org/frontlineworld/stories/bosnia502/interviews_hasan.html . - Arthur Porto

Present Bosnia:
Composed of two entities: Bosnian Muslim-Croat Federation (51% of territory of Bosnia and Herzegovina) and Repulika Srpska (Serb entity which occupies 49 % in their territory)
-Srebrenica still in ruins, economic situation is poor, lesser outside investors, and high rate of unemployment.
-The existence of the Bosnian Muslim-Croat Federation and Republika Srpska still creates conflicts like: establishment of joint police force and constitutional amendments, Sarajevo’s population decreased with Bosnian Muslims as the majority (The Serb minority live in separated in “Serb Sarajevo”), Bosnia also have segregated schools, during elections ethnic groups largely vote for parties of their own ethnicity.
-Potocari- site for the Srebrenica Memorial Room where there’s a ceremony to mark fall of Srebrenica and burial of newly indentified victims which brings together Bosnian Muslims and some of the international community representatives. Today it’s much safer for the Bosnian Muslims to travel in their journey without worrying about Bosnian Serbs harassing them.
-Strong tensions between Kosovo Serb minority and Kosovo Albanian majority because of the possibility for Kosovo’s independence. Prior to independence UNDP survey stated that more than 70% of the Kosovo Serbs were worried due to their ethnicity and fear for their safety and economic situation.

-Eventually Kosovo gained their independence, but problems still persists because the Kosovo government lacks constitutional court and increased backlog of cases.
    • I just thought that even though the genocide is over, there's still tensions between ethnic groups. I just hope this wouldn't lead to another genocide or war..
--Paulina C.

Many dead people are still unnamed. And international officials take apart these bodies to get more information about the people.
It’s not a pleasant job but those who do this on a daily bases say that if they do not this the people who committed these war crimes will not be punished. The findings from the bodies are used as evidence against the former Serb officers. Many family members try to find their loved ones but it is nearly impossible because the only thing that is left of the people is their bones and memories. About 1,000 bodies are kept in and old mine area in Tuzla. - Koko T.
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preserved bodies in Tuzla


The UN ‘Safe Areas’
The whole idea of the UN safe areas that in fact weren’t that safe after all considering all but one fell to the Serbs. So I did a little research on them and found this article about the safe areas:
http://www.beyondintractability.org/documents/Safe_Havens-Bosnia.pdf
This article talks about the safe areas themselves and it helps increase your understanding of them, at least it did for me.
-Kevin Ryan

This is a political cartoon that really defines how evil Milosevic was. -Annie Carforo
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Has Justice Been Served?
Slobodan Milosevic was the former President of Serbia and Yugoslavia. He was accused of committing genocide by the International Criminal Tribunal For the Former Yugoslavia (ICTY) at the Hague Netherlands. They prosecuted him for planning and executing the elimination in whole or in part of the Bosnian Muslims. For his trial, Milosevic wanted to be his own defense lawyer. His poor health conditions interfered with the trials and delayed them many times. In 2006, Milosevic ended up dying in his prison cell before any veridic was reached. Radovan Karadzic and Ratko Mladic have also been accused in taking part of the Bosnian Genocide. Warrants were issued by the ICTY for their arrest. Karadzic was arrested on July 21 2008 while Mladic, to this day is still missing. The Bosnian Croat Drazen Erdemovic admitted to killing and executing Muslims in Pilica and was sentenced by the UN War Crimes Tribual to serve ONLY 5 years! As of now, he has already served up his small 5 years.

similar cartoons on Milosevic
milosevicnoheartattack.jpg milosevic.jpg mladic_wanted_poster.jpg

-Stephanie Chan

A Cry from the Grave – Genocide in Bosnia
This is a very interesting documentary by PBC. It goes into depth about what happened before and during the massacre at Srebrenica. I found this documentary very interesting because not only was it filled with a lot of information it included many interviews with the people who actually witnessed the massacre. Most of the people had lost at least one family if not all of their families. They still visit the headquarters of the UN forces to remember the horrific day of July 11, 1995. One man was an interpreter for the Dutch and because he was with the troops he was safe. But his family all had been killed. He said that the only thing he wants is to know who had killed his family and that he wants them to be punished. He believes that he will never find peace in his life if he knows that who ever killed his family is still living unpunished. This documentary also shows videos taken when the UN commander came to the city and told the people that they were now in a safe city they were crying and relieved that all their suffering will now stop. One woman said that she was so happy that she can finally sleep out night and not be afraid if someone will come and take her family away. It shows how much these people were suffering. But these people all say that they rather suffer for a long time than loose their family members. One lady said that she lived with 60 people in a one room house with one bathroom but she said it wasn’t as bad because she still had a place to sleep and a place to go home to. Srebrenica didn’t have the best conditions but all the people were safe until July 8 when the troubles began. Serb tanks came to attack nearby and by July 9, thirty Dutch soldiers were taken hostage. According to the Dutch, it was more important to save the thirty hostages than the thirty thousand Bosnian Muslims. By July 10 it wasn’t safe at all. And on July 11 a massacre occurred because NATO air forces were declined because a UN commander filled out the wrong form. I thought this was a really stupid mistake. I do blame the commander for not being careful but the UN should’ve allowed the forces to protect the city as well. This would’ve prevented the massacre. Because of this some people say that the Dutch are the enemy.
http://www.pbs.org/wnet/cryfromthegrave/
-Koko


I just thought I'd provide some information about key Serbian figures who have been convicted by the UN for war crimes
Karadzic, Radovan (Republika Srpska President)- pending sentence
Plavsic, Biljana (Republika Srpska President)- 11 years
Krajisnik Momcilo (Republike Srpska People's Assembly President)- 20 years
Krstic Radislav (Republika Srpska Army)- 35 years for war crimes involving Srebrenica
Galic Stanislav (Republike Srpska Army Commander)- life imprisonment for war crimes involving Sarajevo
Lukic Milan (Republika Srpska Army)- life imprisonment for war crimes involving Visegrad

There are many other convicted war criminals though I selected these as they in general held some of the higher positions and received harsher sentences. I felt this is interesting too because it does show the the UN has taken action in convicting key figures in the Bosnian Genocide. More info at http://www.bosniafacts.info/web/serb_war_criminals.php
- Grant Cohen

Media

Throughout the war in Bosnia, most media was converted into propaganda tools which were utilized by authorities, armies, and factions. Currently, the public radio and TV stations which make up a little over 200 broadcasters have been most influential in Bosnia. Although the media is quite inexpensive and usually free, numerous journalists undergo pressure from both political parties and state bodies. Since 1995, a campaign for improved media has progressed although with little success.

- Alex Evans

I just found a very informative article that outlines a timeline for the events of the Srebencia massacre. When researching its easy to get confused with all the different events and times but this should prove informative.
http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/675945.stm
-Kevin Teahan

genocide cartoons, genocide cartoon, genocide picture, genocide pictures, genocide image, genocide images, genocide illustration, genocide illustrations
genocide cartoons, genocide cartoon, genocide picture, genocide pictures, genocide image, genocide images, genocide illustration, genocide illustrations

Even though this cartoon concerns the genocide in Darfur, I thought that
it related to the Bosnian genocide as well. As you can see, the international
response towards the cause is the same approach towards the genocide, and
it is a cycle of killing and death. The cartoon also says "enough for a change",
which really means that we don't have to kill one another, but instead we can
all relate to each other because we are all human. The blood on the floor represents
the groups of people that are targeted and are going through a suppossed genocide.
The Bosnian muslims are included in this cartoon, which is why I brought it up.
If there are other ways of preventing and fighting genocides besides killing, we
should use that approach before getting violent. However, if a genocide cannot be
stopped, humans must not stand there, and should use force as a last option.
-Arthur Porto

http://www.cleveland.com/opinion/index.ssf/2010/04/some_still_in_denial_over_mass.html
This article really goes into depth on the fact that only one nation is still refusing or denying of the Srebencia massacre that took place, and this nation is the Bosniak Serbs. Its really sad that they cannot even admit to this event which was the "worst single atrocity to occur on European soil since World War II." What makes it even more sickening is that the crime occured on their own land. If 8000 murdered men and boys are not enough proof that this massacre actually occured than I dont know what is. Its interesting to note that denial is the last of the eight stages of genocide, and this is no doubt a case of denial that the Srebenica massacre occured. Obviously this is an attempt of the Serbs to cover up what happened because they feel the only good thing that will come from acknowledgement of the events would be embarassment of their nation.
-Kevin Teahan



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i found this cartoon and it shows Karadzic. he was the leader of Repulika Srpska and was acused of war crimes against the Bosnian Muslims. This cartoon shows him holding Ethnic Cleansing agent insted of cleaning agent and expresses his intent of wiping out the Muslims. -Stephen Sorgi

Sarajevo_Siege_Bosnian_Muslim_Children_Victims_in_Morgue.jpg
Many children died during the war and this is the morgue filled with some Bosnian kids. I felt so bad especially for the parents and other family member that lost their children so young. -Anna Jacobs

while doing my research i cam across this link at first i thought it was just another page about the genoicde but this page really made me upset it has pictures of loved ones who were lost / disapeared in the genocide. the top of the page is all pictures of loved ones but if you scroll down to the bottom there is an atrical that also made me very upset. http://genocideinvisegrad.wordpress.com/ ---Courtney Dempesey

This is a nwes article regarding the jail sentence of two ex-Serb policeman, both getting sentenced to jail for 31 years. They were convicted on charges of aiding in the genocide that occured in the Srebenica massacre. It's nice to see that sick people likes this are getting the punsihment they deserve when there has been some news lately acqutting people of jail time who commited genocidal acts.
http://www.nytimes.com/reuters/2010/04/22/world/international-uk-bosnia-warcrimes-sentence.html
-Kevin Teahan

I found a great site that states the history of Bosnia and the war before and the conflict with some details about the genocide and the crimes that were committed.
http://www.globalyouthconnect.org/country_bosnia.html
This is another good site that states the background of each republic and more information about the genocide and the main people involved in the genocide and conflict.
http://www.balkandevelopment.org/edu_bos.html
-Pamela Tiavises


Mirjana Markovic
Along with Milosevic’s top four co-conspirators, the main person who influenced him was his wife Mirjana Markovic. She is the daughter of a leading communist family. Mira would not let her husband make any decisions without consulting with her first. Most Serbians call her the “Red Witch.” During the Kosovo conflict, Mira persuaded her husband to take a hard stand against the NATO officials. In 1996, her husband did not accept election results won by opposition leaders because she had told him not to. It is also said that Mirjana told her husband not to resign under any circumstances or any growing protests. The former Serbian president Ivan Stambolic believes that Milosevic ideas were not from himself but his wife. He quotes, “Milosevic has never had any political ideas of his own. They’ve all been hers.” It just makes me wonder how much we really know and how much we really know about the people involved in the genocide. Around August 2000, Ivan Stabolic, the man who critiqued Milosevic was kidnapped and murdered. They believed that Mira had involvement in his disappearance. Shouldn't this woman be locked up? http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/944861.stm -Stephanie Chan


"Up to 7,500 men, and boys over 13 years old, were killed. They were trucked or marched to their places of death. Up to 3,000, many in the act of trying to escape, were shot or decapitated in the fields. (Mladic had sent out his written order to 'block, crush and destroy the straggling parts of the Muslim group'; it was carried out.) 1,500 were locked in a warehouse and sprayed with machine gun fire and grenades. Others died in their thousands on farms, football fields, school playgrounds. The whole action was carried out with military efficiency. (It is said that the transport drivers were each forced to kill one man, to deter them from testifying against the Serb troops later.)"
This outake is from http://www.ppu.org.uk/genocide/g_bosnia1.html and shows the magnitude of the genocide


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This photograph from 1992 depicts how Bosniak civilians were killed in the town of Bijeljina.
-Annelisa Tucker


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Karadzic discussing with Mladic about his plans for "ethnic cleansing."


external image Srebrenica+Genocide+Memorial+in+Potocari+8372+Victims.JPG
This is a memorial rock to the victims of the Srebrenica genocide (located in Potočari) where 8372 Bosnian Muslims were massacred.
-Philippe Kimura-Thollander


external image srebrenica_300.jpg
This is another picture that shows the coffins of victims of the Bosnian genocide and their mourners.
-Hannah Schumacher



CIA on BosniaThis is a link on some basic information about Bosnia currently. I thought it was interesting since it shows many different aspects of the country including background, economy, geography, transportation etc.

- Brandon Salerno





external image Bosnian+Genocide+-+Ron+Haviv+-+Bijeljina+1992.jpg
In April 1992, photojournalist Ron Haviv photographed evidence of Serbs committing Bosnian Genocide and killing Bosniak civilians in the town of Bijeljina. - Emma Walsh


this shows that genocide not only kills people but effects them while they're alive. If people are in a seperated place and living their last few days they aren't even happy but horrible and full of hard work.
this shows that genocide not only kills people but effects them while they're alive. If people are in a seperated place and living their last few days they aren't even happy but horrible and full of hard work.

Danielle Jensen

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These mass grave site shows how many people are effected/killed by these horrible genocides.
Danielle Jensen

Genocide in Bosnia-Herzegovina (1992-1995)
Wendy Vaz

With the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1990, the areas that had been under the Soviet Union were now unstable, including the nation of Yugoslavia. Yugoslavia had been under a repressive communist government for 40 years, although many different ethnicities and religions had resided under a united front. This changed when Yugoslavia began to fall apart. Slovenia and Croatia declared independence, and war quickly followed between Serbia and these breakaway republics. Old ethnic tensions were reignited, and people who had lived peacefully for years as neighbors turned against each other and took up arms. When Bosnia attempted to secede, Serbia – under Slobodan Milosevic’s leadership – invaded, claiming it was there to “free” fellow Serbian Orthodox Christians living in Bosnia who were being “mistreated” by the Bosnian Muslims.
Bosnia Map
Bosnia Map
Between April 1992 and November 1995, Serbia set out to “ethnically cleanse” Bosnian territory by systematically removing all Bosnian Muslims. Serbia, together with ethnic Bosnian Serbs, attacked Bosnian Muslims with former Yugoslavian military equipment and surrounded Sarajevo, the capital city. The siege of this city was brutal, as snipers were used to shoot civilians walking in the street. Many Bosnian Muslims were driven into concentration camps where women and girls were systematically gang-raped and other civilians were tortured, starved and murdered. In the course of the war as many as 1 million Muslims in Bosnia were forced to flee their homes.
In 1993, the United Nations (UN) Security Council declared that Sarajevo, Goradze, Srebrenica and other Muslim enclaves were to be safe areas, protected by a contingent of UN peacekeepers. During this time, in the safe area of Srebrenica, the Serbs committed the largest massacre in Europe since World War II. Many Muslims had fled there to escape the fighting. Women, children and elderly people were put on buses and driven to the front line, to Muslim-controlled territory. The “battle-age” men were kept behind and slaughtered in a carefully planned operation. Today, there is still no known information of the whereabouts of about 4,000 draft-age men. The so-called safe area of Srebrenica had fallen without a single shot fired by its international protectors. Zepa, another safe area, fell a few days later to Bosnian Serbs.
In 1994, hostilities ended between Croatia and Bosnian Muslims, and military assistance from the United States increased in 1995. NATO initiated air strikes against Bosnian Serbs to stop the attacks against Bosnian Muslims. Ultimately, U.S.-led negotiations in Dayton, Ohio (The Dayton Peace Accords) ended the conflict in Bosnia, and a force was created to maintain the cease-fire. The International Criminal Tribunal for Yugoslavia (ICTY) at The Hague brought Serbian President Milosevic and more than 160 Serbs to trial for their crimes against humanity and the murder of more than 200,000. Many low-ranking officers were tried and sentenced to prison. As atrocities were committed on all sides, convictions have included Serb, Croat and Bosnian Muslims, though Serbians and Bosnian Serbs have faced the majority of the charges. In July 2008, the former psychiatrist and leader of the Bosnian Serbs, Radovan Karadzic, was arrested and now will face criminal charges for his actions. As of 2008, General Ratko Mladic, the highest-ranking Serbian officer, remains at large.


bosnia-88980259-resized.jpg
A Bosnian Muslim woman weeps by the coffin of a relative
Every year thousands of Bosnians gather on the July 11 anniversary of the attack for burials, family reunions, and to remember their relatives and friends lying beneath the thousands of white tombstones in the special memorial cemetery. -Emma Walsh


Bosnian citizens mourning near a discovered burial site. --Rob Solano
Srebrenica_Genocide_Coffins_Two_Women.jpg

external image LM53_Yugo_4.gif

This 3 year old Serbian boy was shot dead while hiding in a cellar at 72 Nikola Demonja Street. His parents were also killed. This is important because many small children were affected by the genocide.

-Annelisa Tucker

I found a nice site that links to some different articles about the Bosnian Genocide. It also has a forum with discussions in English and in another language. http://www.genocid.org/english.php
- Hannah Schumacher

JUSTICE REPORT: Bosnia's Book of the Dead

21 06 2007 Twelve years after the war ended, Bosnia and Herzegovina is getting close to ascertaining the total number of those who died.

By Nidzara Ahmetasevic in Sarajevo
Almost four years since work began on the Population Loss Project 1991-1995, the Research and Documentation Centre, IDC will present the Bosnian Book of the Dead in Sarajevo on Thursday, June 21.

Justice Report can reveal that, as of the end of June 2007, the book contained 97,207 names of Bosnia and Herzegovina's citizens representing victims of war.

The rich database classifies war victims by status, ethnic affiliation, gender, age and so on.

Although analysts consider that the database will reduce the possibility that the numbers of war victims could be manipulated for political reasons, they, at the same time, warn that the database is still not complete.

In any case, a brisk discussion is expected in Bosnia in Herzegovina about the possible ways of using the data for the determination of truth and for reconciliation.

Mirsad Tokaca, IDC president, has said that the aim of the project was to identify each single victim and prevent any type of manipulation of numbers, which he considers has been the case for years.

"This is not a story about numbers, but about citizens who died during the past period," Tokaca told Justice Report.

Three international experts - Patrick Ball, Ewa Tabeau and Philip Verwimp - all with rich experience in similar projects, have reviewed the database and have assessed it favourably.

"This database represents an extraordinary achievement of all those who were involved in its preparation," the experts have said, adding that some improvements are still possible.

The trio considers that the data collected by IDC gives a "good overview of war happenings related to victims and the way the individuals died".

Verwimp, a researcher in the field of political economy in developing and post-war countries, human rights and genocide, warns that the IDC database does not mean that work on determining the number of war victims in BiH is over.

"Many consider the number of 97,207 as the overall total of victims of the 1992-1995 war in Bosnia, which is not correct. For several reasons, this number should be seen as an approximation of a minimum and not as a complete total," he told Justice Report.

Tabeau believes that the information from the database can be an efficient tool for fighting myths about the war.

"These results might be an extremely efficient tool in fighting myths, but only if there is a will in the society to deal with the past in terms of facts, not myths," said Tabeau, who worked as a project manager in the demographic unit of the Hague tribunal's prosecution office. In this role, she studied the demographic consequences of conflicts in the former Yugoslavia, with a main focus on the number of victims during the wars in this region.

However, even though more than 90,000 names have been included in the database, the IDC does not consider that its work on the project has been concluded.

"The database remains open and whoever contacts us and offers new data we are willing to consider it and add new names," said the IDC's Tokaca.

I thought that this was a interesting event considering the fact that the Bosnians have not identified the exact number of individuals who have died in the Bosnian genocide. The rest of the article is on the this link http://birn.eu.com/en/88/10/3377/

Kevin Winnie


external image Srebrenica+Massacre+Victims+Kravica+Warehouse+2.jpg

This is a warehouse, where at least 1000 Bosniak civilians died. There is still evidence of the massacre inside the warehouse.
- Hannah Schumacher



At this point, some of the worst genocidal activities of the four-year-old conflict occurred. In Srebrenica, a Safe Haven, U.N. peacekeepers stood by helplessly as the Serbs under the command of General Ratko Mladic systematically selected and then slaughtered nearly 8,000 men and boys between the ages of twelve and sixty - the worst mass murder in Europe since World War II. In addition, the Serbs continued to engage in mass rapes of Muslim females. Bosnia

- Brandon Salerno



external image Bosnia.png
The Bosnia-Herzegovina flag, adopted February 4, 1998, has a blue background with a yellow inverted triangle in the center. To the left of the triangle is a row of white stars in a line from the top edge to the bottom edge of the flag.

- Brandon Salerno


Independence for Bosnia

Radovan Karadzic denies Bosnian massacre UN genocide trial: this is one example of a leader who denies a genocide and even a human rights crime. Denial is one of the eight stages of genocide and can be used as proof against him in the classification of the genocide. Not only did he deny the name genocide but he also denied that people died. He claims a massacre of 8,000 muslims was a myth and never happend. He denied many other events that are prove to have happend. This shows one of the many examples of how people deny a genocide and even the events that have been proven to happen.
Danielle Jensen


Article talks about the smuggling of weapons to Muslims....

The Hague, May 11 (IANS/AKI) Humanitarian convoys were used to smuggle weapons to Muslims during the Bosnia war from 1992-95, Bosnian Serb leader Radovan Karadzic, accused of genocide and war crimes, has told the UN Yugoslav war crimes tribunal.
“Everything was smuggled through these convoys – weapons, military equipment, cameras, food,” Karadzic said Monday, while cross-examining a prosecution witness.

Bosnian Serb forces stopped only a few convoys, and Muslim officials stored away humanitarian aid and sold it in the black market, Karadzic said.
Prosecution witness David Harland, who served with the UN Protection Force (UNPROFOR) in Bosnia from 1993 to 1995, said Karadzic’s accusations were “absolutely false”.
“The things you mention were never seen in the hands of Muslims soldiers,” Harland said.
“There were criminal elements among Muslim authorities, but it was Serbs who cut and reduced humanitarian aid for the suffering population. We knew that food was partly being diverted to black market and to the Bosnian army, but you were robbing the convoys,” he said.
On being pressed by Karadzic, Harland conceded that 10,000 humanitarian flights landed at Sarajevo airport during the war and only few were stopped.
“I think that at the beginning of the war one plane was shot down and that it was done by Croats,” Harland said.
Harland said some peacekeepers were involved in black marketing food and oil from humanitarian aid. He also conceded that weapons were being smuggled by Muslims to UN protected zones, which were supposed to be demilitarised.

Rob Solano



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A Bosnian Muslim woman embraces the grave where her brother, who was killed during the Bosnian conflicts, is buried. - Emma Walsh




Bosnian Muslims fleeing Srebrenica in 1995, EU plans far-reaching 'genocide denial' law
Bosnian Muslims fleeing Srebrenica in 1995, EU plans far-reaching 'genocide denial' law

Bosnian Muslims fleeing Srebrenica in 1995. Shortly thereafter 8,000 people were killed in one of the UN’s designated safe areas,
after the area fell to Bosnian Serbs. - Wendy Vaz





"Milosevic was a commander of the Sajajevo Romanija Corps unit of the Bosnian Serb Army. The unit employed snipers and mortar attacks to deliberately target civilians, the judge said. In one instance, mortars killed nearly 80 civilians queuing for bread, and in another, a sniper killed a woman's baby after a bullet went through her stomach, striking the infant in the head" - Emma Walsh

Full article here: http://warcrimes.foreignpolicyblogs.com/2007/12/13/bosnian-serb-sentenced-to-33-years/


"With the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1990, the areas that had been under the Soviet Union were now unstable, including the nation of Yugoslavia." This was taken from http://www.hmh.org/ed_Genocide_Bosnia.shtml
I find it interesting that when the Bosnians finally get what you would think they want everything falls apart. Once the invaders leave, the wall is torn down and the war is over their government and country goes into a state of trumoil.
Danielle Jensen


Bill Clinton is finding this out the hard way. His ill-conceived decision to prod NATO into bombing Yugoslavia in March has wreaked havoc. The hundreds of thousands of refugees, the civilians killed by NATO bombs, the U.S. soldiers captured, the solidification of domestic support for Serbian strongman Slobodan Milosevic, the dangerous chill in U.S.-Russian relations-all these have come to pass since Clinton made his fateful decision.

That was just a small excerpt from an article from 1999 on Bill Clinton's discion to help Bosnia. To read the rest of this article use this link: http://www.thirdworldtraveler.com/Yugoslavia/BillClintonsWar_Yugo.html
Kevin Winnie

Navy SEALS: Untold Stories: Bosnia Parts 1-3







I remember watching this on the military channel, and I believe it shows a great deal about the U.S. intervention in Bosnia as from the perspective of the Navy SEALs. The beginning also features a detailed history of the conflict with our narrator. In my opinion it's a pretty interesting video overall. ~Nick DeSantis


Independence in Bosnia


"Elections in 1990 brought nationalists to power in Croatia and Slovenia, which, together with Macedonia, declared independence in 1991 and were all recognised internationally. Alija Izetbegovic, the leader of Bosnia's multi-ethnic government, called for independence for Bosnia, too; it was recognised as independent by the USA and the EU in 1992."


http://www.ppu.org.uk/genocide/g_bosnia.html

-Brian McGovern


War crimes prosecutors at The Hague say they have now received the wartime diaries of Gen Ratko Mladic.
He is one of only two men indicted at the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia still on the run.
Regional analysts say the diaries, which were seized from Gen Mladic's home in a raid in February, could provide important evidence in several ongoing trials.
The diaries cover the period 1991-96, during the wars in Croatia and Bosnia.
Whereabouts a mystery
In all there are 18 diaries totalling 3,500 pages.
They were seized in a raid on the Belgrade apartment of Gen Mladic's wife in February.
The Serbian authorities handed them over at the prosecution's request.
Prosecutors say they contain "a significant volume of new evidence" of value in ongoing trials.
Gen Mladic is believed to have kept notes on all his major meetings, including those with Bosnian Serb political leaders like Radovan Karadzic, currently on trial at the Hague tribunal...

- Brandon Salerno

The New York Times
The New York Times

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February 28, 2006

Bosnia's Genocide Case Against Serbia Starts

By MARLISE SIMONS
PARIS, Feb. 27 — The International Court of Justice began hearings on Monday in its first genocide case, a suit in which Bosnia charges that Serbia tried to destroy the Muslim population of Bosnia.
Bosnia is asking the court, a judicial body of the United Nations, for formal recognition of its people's brutal fate and financial compensation for Bosnia and its victims.
The central argument is that Serbia violated the 1948 United Nations Convention on Genocide "on all counts" in the 1992-1995 war after the breakup of Yugoslavia.
Although other national and international courts have had genocide trials, the International Court of Justice has never taken up the issue of one state accusing another of genocide.
The court, based at the Peace Palace in The Hague, adjudicates disputes between nations and more commonly deals with territorial or maritime claims.
The public hearings now under way are the final stage in a 13-year-old process. Since Bosnia filed its suit in 1993, the two sides have exchanged voluminous legal briefs, and Serbia has tried to settle the dispute through diplomacy and through efforts to block the court from taking the case. But the court has ruled that it has jurisdiction, allowing the case to proceed.
The hearings are scheduled to continue until May 9. After that, it is quite likely to take months before the international panel of judges delivers its verdict.
In his opening statement, the Bosnian representative, Sakib Softic, said that the violence instigated by the Belgrade government in 1992 "destroyed the character of Bosnia and Herzegovina and certainly destroyed a substantial part of its non-Serb population."
Mr. Softic said the Belgrade authorities took that population "on a path to hell, a path littered with dead bodies, broken families, lost youths and lost futures."
Despite the magnitude of the massacres, he said, many Serbs have continued to deny the history of war crimes. The suit aims to do away with "the falsifying of history," Mr. Softic said.
An estimated 100,000 Serbs, Croats and Bosnian Muslims were killed in the Bosnia conflict. About two-thirds were Bosnian Muslims. Serbian forces, acting in concert with local Bosnian Serbs, set out to create Serb-only regions in a policy known as ethnic cleansing.
The suit cites numerous cases of the deliberate killing of Muslim civilians in their towns and houses, as well as in concentration camps. It also documents large-scale rape and torture and the destruction of mosques and cultural heritage sites.
A lawyer on the Bosnian team, Phon van den Biesen, said in an earlier interview that Bosnia was relying on publicly available evidence.
"We have not tried to get materials from intelligence services," he said. "We have found more than enough material."
The material includes evidence and rulings from a different court, the United Nations war crimes tribunal that deals with the former Yugoslavia, also in The Hague. That tribunal has already ruled that genocide occurred at Srebrenica, in eastern Bosnia, in 1995 when close to 8,000 unarmed men and boys were executed and thrown into mass graves.
The tribunal has convicted several Bosnian Serb military officers of genocide and is now trying former President Slobodan Milosevic, also on genocide charges.
The Bosnia case before the International Court of Justice may be a factor delaying the arrest of Gen. Ratko Mladic, the Bosnian Serb military leader who is charged with genocide and remains at large.
Some lawyers at the court say Belgrade may be refusing to hand over General Mladic for fear that evidence at his trial could strengthen the Bosnian suit against Serbia. In the war, Belgrade provided covert support to General Mladic's ostensibly separate army, including financing, equipment, personnel and intelligence.
In taking their case to court, Bosnians are seeking greater recognition for their suffering and an implicit confirmation of their moral superiority over their neighbors, which they feel the Dayton peace accord of 1995 did not provide.
Moreover, the continuing denial by Serbian nationalists of the atrocities in the war causes continuing outrage among many survivors.
_
Around four years ago, the first court cases on the Bosnian genocide were conducted, and Serbia was believed to have violated the terms of genocide on all counts.
~Nick DeSantis


How many died?
"As of December 1994," writes Sabrina Ramet in Balkan Babel (p. 267), "between 200,000 and 400,000 people had died since June 1991 as a result of the war between Serbs and non-Serbs, and at least 2.7 million people had been reduced to refugees. An estimated 20,000-50,000 Bosnian Muslim women had been raped by Bosnian Serb soldiers in a systematic campaign of humiliation and psychological terror." Most authorities, while accepting that the death-toll from the Bosnian conflict alone reached six figures, would tend towards the lower end of Ramet's casualty estimate. But to this must be added the further slaughter during the "endgame" of the war in mid-1995, including the gendercidal massacre at Srebrenica and the Croat invasion of the Serb-held Krajina region later in the summer.
No reliable statistics exist for the number of male versus female casualties in the Bosnian or Croatian wars. All members of the civilian population suffered in the protracted and bloody sieges of cities such as Vukovar and Sarajevo. But the overwhelming weight of testimony and recorded evidence suggests a heavy preponderance of "battle-age" males among the dead -- probably over 80 percent. One clue can be gleaned from the lists of missing persons from the Bosnian conflict. The International Committee of the Red Cross has noted that "the majority of missing persons [in Bosnia-Herzegovina] are men ... Of the approximately 18,000 persons registered by the ICRC in Bosnia-Herzegovina as still missing in connection with the armed conflict that ended there in 1995, 92% are men and 8% are women." (ICRC, "The Impact of Armed Conflict on Women", 6 March 2001.) This apparent disproportion, combined with the systematic gender-selective strategies pursued in the individual massacres and "ethnic cleansing" campaigns, warrants the designation of Bosnia-Herzegovina as one of the worst gendercides in recent decades. Especially in 1992-93, atrocities were also inflicted in the brutal concentration camps operated by the Serbs (e.g., Omarska, Trnopolje), and to a lesser extent by the Croats (Dretelj). The inmates of these camps were overwhelmingly Muslim males (95 percent or more); many thousands died from torture, beatings, and summary executions.

- Annelisa Tucker


Many adolescents of Bosnia ,during the war, were raped by Serbian soliders. These rapes have resulted in the reproduction of children from Serbian soliders and Bosnian women. Most of the these children are taken by the Serbian soliders and usually grow up without a mother. The link shares a story of a Serbian/Bosnian children growing up with a difficult situation:
http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/8007740/
Kevin Winnie


The young Milosevic

Slobodan Milosevic was born on August 20, 1941, in Pozarevac, a small town near Belgrade, Serbia, the capital of Yugoslavia. Slobodan was the second of two sons of Svetozar and Stanislava Milosevic. His ancestors belonged to the Vasojevici clan from Montenegro, another republic of Yugoslavia. His father finished Eastern Orthodox seminary (a place where people study to be priests) in Cetinje, Montenegro, and then studied at the School of Theology in Belgrade. His mother was a teacher in Pozarevac. People remember her as a strict, hardworking woman and a devoted Communist (a person who believes that goods should be owned and equally distributed by the government). When Slobodan was young, his parents separated and his father went to live in Montenegro. It is believed that his parents both eventually took their own lives—his father in 1962 and his mother in 1973.
Milosevic finished his elementary and high school education in Pozarevac. According to his teachers and classmates, young Milosevic was an outstanding high school student, always attentive and always neatly dressed. Although quiet and solitary, he was politically active and published several of his writings in the local high school journal. While still in high school, Milosevic met his future wife, Mirjana (Mira) Markovic, whose family ranked among the most prominent Communists in Serbia. Her father was a hero from World War II (1939–45; a war fought between the Axis [Germany, Italy, and Japan] and the Allies [the United States, Britain, China and other nations]). Her uncle later became one of the leading politicians in post-war Serbia, and her aunt was a personal secretary of Josip Broz Tito (1892–1980) who was the Communist president of Yugoslavia from 1953 to 1980. The young couple's friends did not doubt that the love between Mirjana and Slobodan was sincere and genuine—theirs was a bond between two similar souls. They raised two children.

A career in the making

In 1960 Milosevic was a law student at the University of Belgrade. He was an excellent student who was active in the university section of the League of Communists (the official name for the Communist Party), where he met Ivan Stambolic, a nephew of one of the most powerful Serbian Communist leaders. Many believe that it was Stambolic who elevated the political career of Milosevic.
In 1964, after graduating from the university, Milosevic was appointed as an economic adviser and a coordinator of the information service in the government of Belgrade. In 1968 he became a deputy director of a state-owned gas company, Tehnogas. After Stambolic left Tehnogas in 1973 and became the prime minister of Serbia, Milosevic rose to the post of director. Five years later he became president of the powerful Belgrade bank Beobanka. In 1982 he became a member of the collective presidency of the League of Communists of Serbia, and two years later a chief of the City of Belgrade Party Organization. The collective presidency of the League of Communists of Serbia elected Milosevic as its president in 1986.

A defining moment

On April 24, 1987, Milosevic visited Kosovo Polje, a suburb of the capital of the self-governing Serbian province of Kosovo, and attempted to calm the group of Serbs and Montenegrins who were protesting the continuous mistreatment by the Albanian majority. When an excited crowd tried to enter the
Slobodan Milosevic. Reproduced by permission of Archive Photos, Inc.
Slobodan Milosevic. Reproduced by permission of Archive Photos, Inc.
Slobodan Milosevic.
Reproduced by permission of Archive Photos, Inc. building to speak directly to Milosevic, they were beaten back by the local police. Milosevic strode out and shouted to the crowd: "No one has the right to beat you!" These simple words changed the structure of Serbian politics. Shortly after, in a series of heated sessions of the League of Communists of Serbia, Milosevic succeeded in removing Stambolic and his associates from the Serbian political arena. In 1989 Milosevic became president of Serbia.

This is an article on the young Milosevic who started the invasion on Bosnia. To read more here is the link:

http://www.notablebiographies.com/Ma-Mo/Milosevic-Slobodan.html


Read more: Slobodan Milosevic Biography - life, family, children, parents, name, wife, school, mother, young, information, born, time, year http://www.notablebiographies.com/Ma-Mo/Milosevic-Slobodan.html#ixzz0oZ6pf7JG

Kevin Winnie


The ICRC in Bosnia and Herzegovina
"Present in Bosnia-Herzegovina since 1992, the ICRC continues to help clarify the fate of almost 13,000 people still listed as missing from the war and to provide moral and practical support to their families.

Working independently, but in close coordination with the authorities and international organizations, the ICRC's aim is for the families of missing persons to find out what happened to their loved ones – information they have a right to under international humanitarian law (IHL).

The ICRC also works closely with the national Red Cross society, helping to strengthen its structures and activities. One of the main operational programmes supported by the ICRC helps high-risk communities prevent casualties caused by mines and other unexploded devices.

High on its list of objectives is the promotion of IHL to the authorities, armed forces and schools. The ICRC encourages the authorities to implement IHL treaties and has made specialists available to help meet this goal."

-Hannah Schumacher

Radovan Karadzic
Radovan Karadzic




Radovan Karadzic denies Bosnian massacre UN genocide trial: this is one example of a leader who denies a genocide and even a human rights crime. Denial is one of the eight stages of genocide and can be used as proof against him in the classification of the genocide. Not only did he deny the name genocide but he also denied that people died. He claims a massacre of 8,000 muslims was a myth and never happend. He denied many other events that are prove to have happend. This shows one of the many examples of how people deny a genocide and even the events that have been proven to happen.
Danielle Jensen


external image Ethnic+Map+of+Bosnia-Herzegovina+(1991).gif

Bosnia was composed of various ethnicities prior to the genocide.
Wendy Vaz

http://jurist.law.pitt.edu/paperchase/2007/02/icj-serbia-not-guilty-of-bosnia.php

This is an article about how Serbia is not guilty of the Bosnian genocide but they broke the law because they didn’t prevent the genocide. The International Court of Justice confirmed that the mass killing of Bosnians was an act of genocide and that Serbia failed to prevent this event from happening. I don’t think Serbia is completely innocent of the genocide since they killed many people and they did have a role in the genocide even though it wasn’t direct as the ICJ stated.

-Jiwon Han





external image genocide_744975.jpg

This is a genocide cartoon that was put in the newspaper. It shows the burying of people that are of a different ethnicity with no way out.
Danielle Jensen


external image rman160l.jpg

This cartoon is directed towards Bosnia rather then genocide in general. It shows how radical there government have become, even with small importance such as luggage.
Daniellle Jensen

http://www.historyplace.com/worldhistory/genocide/bosnia.htm
This website gives us a detailed timeline of the many events that make up the Bosnian genocide.
Wendy Vaz



Srebrenica_Massacre_Bosnian_Muslim_Victim_Blindfolded.jpg
Blindfolded victim shows that people were tortured before being killed. Another aspect to the actual killings.

-Rob Solano

Independence for Bosnia

"Elections in 1990 brought nationalists to power in Croatia and Slovenia, which, together with Macedonia, declared independence in 1991 and were all recognised internationally. Alija Izetbegovic, the leader of Bosnia's multi-ethnic government, called for independence for Bosnia, too; it was recognised as independent by the USA and the EU in 1992."

http://www.ppu.org.uk/genocide/g_bosnia.html

-Brian McGovern

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/1470928.stm

This article was about a former general, General Krystic, who was guilty of his role in the Bosnian genocide and he “was sentenced to 46 years in prison but was spared the eight life sentences demanded by prosecutors.” “Spokesman for the international tribunal said the verdict ‘shows the victims of the Srebrenica massacre that the international community has not forgotten about them’. But some relatives of Srebrenica victims reacted with anger to the sentence, describing it as too lenient.” There were other generals who took part in the genocide and they are “the court’s most wanted fugitives following the extradition of former Yugoslav President Slobodan Milosevic to The Hague in June.” Should the generals receiver harsher punishments like life sentences or is 46 years in prison enough?

-Jiwon Han



Peace Signs in Sarajevo

After the War, the Capital Rises From the Ruins




By Alex Crevar
Special to The Washington Post
Sunday, March 26, 2006
As darkness fell and a celebratory throng of Bosnians sandwiched in on me from every direction, I had a delightful realization: This was not the Sarajevo I'd known when I'd lived here seven years earlier.
In the Sarajevo of the late 1990s, the effects of war -- the siege of the city that lasted from 1992 to '95, and the ravaging effect it had on its victims -- were still highly visible. But on this summer night, as the masses swarmed toward a stage recently assembled for an outdoor concert featuring a folksy balladeer named Dorde Balasevic (imagine a Slavic Bob Dylan), they were giddy. It was not the giddiness of little girls and daisy fields (no matter how happy, Balkan people are typically an emotionally charged clan), but there was gaiety in the air -- as if the survivors of a great storm were finally all together . . . and dry.



This excerpt from an article I found tells of the after effects and recovery of the Bosnian capital, Sarajevo. To read more, here is the link:

http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2006/03/24/AR2006032400669.html

Kevin Winnie

Cartoon by Mike Keefe - Karazdic Captured
Cartoon by Mike Keefe - Karazdic Captured


This cartoon shows how Karadzic was denying that he was part of the genocide and wasn't taking responsibility of what he did. The skulls around him show how many people died and the harm done to the Bosnians.
- Jiwon Han

Srebrencia was not genocide: Bosnian Serb Leader
Serb Prime Minister Milorad Dodik is another leader who will not accept that the Srebrencia massacre was a genocide. He recently told a newspaper "We cannot and will never accept qualifying that event as a genocide."
http://www.bullfax.com/?q=node-srebrenica-was-not-genocide-bosnian-serb-leader
-Hannah Schumacher



serbia_anxiously_awaits_world_court_ruling_on_bosnian_genocide_suit_pic_large.jpg

Tourists seeing the Bosnian genocide for themselves. This opens the country up to the world to let all the common people see the horrible crimes commited.
-Rob Solano

external image laln306l.jpg
This cartoon shows how Radovan Karadzic was disguised as a doctor for 13 years and it was a way for him to take part in the Bosnian genocide. Karadzic murdered many people by selling medicine and was arrested for inhumane acts.

-Jiwon Han


rma0106l.jpg
Political cartoon from the Bosnian Genocide...

- Rob Solano

More Cartoons
external image cgr0042l.jpgexternal image rmrn28l.jpg
Stumbled upon these cartoons, I was surprised how many there truly are. Cartoonists convey their own feelings through the use of art.
~Nick DeSantis

This article describes the first time a court labeled the killings in Bosnia a genocide. The court also determined that Serbia as a country was not guilty of the crime, but rather, individuals were. Wendy Vaz

http://www.nytimes.com/2007/02/27/world/europe/27hague.html



Total
102,622
Bosniaks & Croats
c. 72,000
Serbs
c. 30,700
Total civilians
55,261
Bosniaks & Croats
c. 38,000
Serbs
c. 16,700
Total soldiers
47,360
Bosniaks
c. 28,000
Serbs
c. 14,000
Croats
c. 6,000

Total
96,175
Bosniaks
63,994
66.5%
Serbs
24,206
25.2%
Croats
7,338
7.6%
other
637
0.7%
Total civilians
38,645
Bosniaks
32,723
84.7%
Serbs
3,555
9.2%
Croats
1,899
4.9%
others
466
1.2%
Total soldiers
57,529
Bosniaks
31,270
54.4%
Serbs
20,649
35.9%
Croats
5,439
9.5%
others
171
0.3%
unconfirmed
4,000
This chart shows the casualties of civilians, soldiers from various ethnic groups. This research was done in 2007 by the Research and Documentation Center in Sarajevo. "More than 240,000 pieces of data have been collected, processed, checked, compared and evaluated by international team of experts in order to get the final number of more than 97,000 of names of victims, belonging to all nationalities." Further information about the death toll can be found in http://thebosnianwarfactstimelinehistorygenocidecriminals.wordpress.com/2007/08/24/bosnian-war-casualties-death-toll-figures-research-documents/

-Jiwon Han


external image 031.jpg
This photograph expresses the horror and violence during the Bosnian genocide. It is also seen that the decapitated heads of Muslim men are being violated as a soldier places his foot on them.
- Anthony Leighton


http://www.gendercide.org/g_and_g.htm
This is a link to a book published in 2004 called Gendercide and Genocide. This is the most wide-ranging book ever published on gender-selective mass killing, or "gendercide," this collection of essays is also the first to explore systematically the targeting of non-combatant "battle-age" males in various wartime and peacetime contexts.
Gendercide and Genocide
Gendercide and Genocide

- Brandon Salerno


























Gendercide in Bosnia

In the light of long-established and heavily "gendered" strategies of intercommunal conflict in the Balkans, it was hardly surprising that the gender-selective massacre of non-combatant males would emerge as the dominant and most severe atrocity inflicted on the civilian population in the modern Balkans wars. Regardless of their often-atrocious maltreatment of other population groups (including the destruction of entire cities and the mass rape of women), Serb forces -- and to a lesser extent Croats and Muslims -- concentrated their attention systematically on "battle-age" men. As the Bosnian Prime Minister Hasan Muratovic described the Serb strategy in 1996, "Wherever they [the Serbs] captured people, they either detained or killed all the males from 18 to 55 [years old]. It has never happened that the men of that age arrived across the front-line."

An excerpt from a site about gendercide

http://www.gendercide.org/case_bosnia.html

- Brian McGovern


external image Serbian%20mother%20mourns%20her%20loved%20one%20murdered%20by%20Oric.2.jpgThis photograph shows a Muslim woman weeping over the death of her child. Obviously, the Bosnian genocide took no restrictions on killing children. It is terrible what sorrow genocide can bring.
- Anthony Leighton

Severe Lack of International Support

Though the international community did little to prevent the systematic atrocities committed against Bosniaks and Croats in Bosnia while they were occurring, it did actively seek justice against those who committed them. In May 1993, the U.N. Security Council created the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (ICTY) at The Hague, Netherlands. It was the first international tribunal since the Nuremberg Trials in 1945-46 and the first to prosecute genocide, among other war crimes. Radovan Karadzic and the Bosnian Serb military commander, General Ratko Mladic, were among those indicted by the ICTY for genocide and other crimes against humanity.
http://www.history.com/topics/bosnian-genocide

- Brian McGovern


Great t-shirt:
external image dont_forget_the_bosnian_genocide_tshirt-p235306255893747317yc6k_400.jpg
Methods of spreading awareness of the Bosnian genocide sometimes come in the simplest ways, like this shirt. Easy, affordable, and effective.
~Nick DeSantis

Effects of the Camps

genocide_bosnia_trnopolje_640.jpg

- Brian McGovern

Zlata's Diary
I found this diary absolutely captivating just by watching a video of it and reading some background. "From 1991 to 1993, she wrote in her diary (called "Mimmy") about the horrors of war in Sarajevo, through which she was living. Some news agencies and media outlets labeled her the "Anne Frank of Sarajevo". (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zlata_Filipović)
external image 200px-Zlata%27s_Diary.jpg

Overall, Zlata's Diary looks like a very interesting read to anyone interested in how the genocide specifically impacts the lives of young ones.
~Nick DeSantis

"The hush that descends after lips have finished uttering a prayer for the dead."
I found this quote interesting because it examines the aftermath of genocide and the sorrow that genocide brings. Although a genocide may have ended, those invovled who may have survived or lost loved ones will still feel their pain for the rest of their lives.
- Anthony Leighton


This website provides us with statistics on the total amount of people killed in the genocide...

200,000 and 8,000
Bosnian Serb forces systematically murdered an estimated 200,000 Bosnian Muslims in pursuit of a "Greater Serbia" during civil war between 1992 and 1995. In one particularly shocking incident, over8,000 Muslim men and boys were rounded-up killed execution-style by the Serbian army in Srebrenica in July 1995.
http://humanrights.change.org/blog/view/statistics_on_genocide_that_i_wish_didnt_exist

Annelisa Tucker


This is a good website that details with how the Bosnian genocide started. It also has other articles available about the Bosnian genocide itself. It really tries to emphasize the fact that one reason that the Bosnian genocide was allowed to happen was becasue the ethnic groups living there did not interact that much.

http://thebosnianwarfactstimelinehistorygenocidecriminals.wordpress.com/2006/11/30/how-the-war-in-bosnia-started-and-the-genocide-of-bosniak-muslims/

Nick Widmaier

This website is also interesting because it gives an opposite perspective on the bosnian genocide. It claims that in addition to the Muslims that were killed, nearly 4000 Serbs were killers. I just think that it interesting to note this because we always are talking about the Muslims that were killed, not always the Serbs that died. (Although i know that what to the Muslims was terrible dont get me wrong)

http://real-bosnian-genocide.blogspot.com/
WARNING VERY GRAPHIC IMAGES ARE SHOWN ON THIS SITE

Nick Widmaier

This website shows a timeline of events of the Bosnian genocide. It runs down many events from about 1990-1995. One thing i found interesting is that this site never even calls it a genocide, they just call it "ethnic cleansing" and only metion genocide when they say some people were charged with genocide.

http://selenasol.com/selena/struggle/bosnia_timeline.html

Nick Widmaier

external image Bosniaks+Muslims+in+Trnopolje+Concentration+Camp.jpg

This is just a picture of some emaciated Bosnian Muslims during the genocide at Srebonica.

Nick Widmaier

This website is also very interesting; it details how in international law, the Bosnian conflict was not ruled to be a genocide and that in fact it didn't really mean much because it was still evident that even without that classification the conflict was still a terrible crime.

http://www.opendemocracy.net/globalization-yugoslavia/genocide_icj_4398.jsp

Nick Widmaier


Genocide: Sorry Seems to be the Hardest Word

Yesterday the Serbian parliament voted 127-21 to condemn the Srebrenica massacre of 1995, the worst human rights atrocity on European soil since the end of the Holocaust. 8,000 Bosniak men and boys were rounded up by the forces of Bosnian Serb military commander Ratko Mladic, under the impotent gaze of Dutch UN peacekeepers, and brutally murdered. The vote criticised Serbia's failure "to prevent the killings carried out by its forces after seizing the UN safe haven in the ethnic conflict that followed the break-up of Yugoslavia."

An excerpt from an article I found from a couple of months ago.

- Brian McGovern

Effects of Persecution in Bosnia

news-graphics-2007-_443338a.jpg


- Brian McGovern


This is a chronological timeline of events from 1992 to 2008 in Bosnia
http://www.reuters.com/article/idUSL21644464

Annelisa Tucker

Two people were very recently convicted of crimes at the Srebrenica massacre.
http://www.upi.com/Top_News/International/2010/06/10/2-get-life-sentences-for-Bosnian-genocide/UPI-97611276208990/

-Philippe Kimura-Thollander

external image 1000_Bosnia_exhibit_pleading1.JPG

A Bosniak woman at a makeshift camp for people displaced from Srebrenica. July 1995.

-Philippe Kimura-Thollander