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  1. page Armenian Genocide edited ... {} The purpose of this page is for you to be able t…
    The purpose of this page is for you to be able to post your research and/or questions with regard to the Armenian Genocide. Please be sure to "save" after each posting. Also, keep in mind...only one person can be posting at a soon as you are done log off of that page. We will use all of the information that you post in creating our web portal at the end of the conference. Please feel free to contact me with any questions. :) Ms. Caine
    {armenia_genocide_memorial.jpg} Armenian Genocide Memorial LT
    The pomegranate represents Armenia and it is the symbol of life and fertility. On April 24 1915, when Armenian culture was going through a resurgence, the lives of 1.5 million Armenians, poets and intellectuals were cut short in the events which were marked as the Armenian Genocide.
    -Nicole Gruber
    This document shows the Armenian government's intent to exterminate the Armenians
    Brian Cimons {}
    Many would define genocide differently, depending on their perspective. In general, genocide is defined as the intent to destroy a whole or part of a group, whether a national, ethnical, racial or religious group. Harms to these groups could include...
    a. killing members of the group
    b. causing mental or physical harm to the group
    c. Inflicting living conditions
    d. intent to prevent births
    e. forcibly transferring children to another location against their will
    (according to the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of Genocide)
    -Nicole Gruber
    Once upon a time…… there was the nation of Armenia, free and prosperous. These Armenians had lived on their land since the seventh century B.C.E. and since the beginning; their freedom had constantly been threatened by Mongols, by Persians, by Russians and by the Ottoman Empire. In the fourth century A.D. the Armenians had adopted Christianity as the state religion and they have remained true to their faith since. But in a world soon filled by Muslims starting in the seventh century AD, the Armenians were a stranger, a target for persecution.
    Since the beginning, when the Armenians were first conquered by the Turks, they were already second class citizens, infidels. The Ottoman law stated that any non-Muslims, which included mostly Jews and Christians, were not to have the same rights as a Turkish Muslims. The Armenian Christians were prevented from holding public office, fighting in the army, dressing like Muslims. They were taxed more. But in this discriminated world, the Armenians managed to prosper, making the best of what they had. Over time and using caution, the Armenians developed a wealthy middle class in the cities that they occupied, stirring envy among the Turks. But starting in the 1890s, the Armenians began feeling discontent over their discrimination. They wanted equality, they wanted reform.
    Reform is a big word to ask for when you are a foreign infidel, disliked by the Muslim government. But the Armenians had caught on to the spirit of reform from Europeans and from the French Revolution, they wanted change. Change wasn’t what the Armenians got. Instead they angered the sultan, Abdul Hamid the Second. The Armenians were already attracting jealousy with their wealth, why would the sultan work to improve their conditions?
    Hamid the Second began his fight against the Armenians in 1894. Over the next three years, massacres were carried out by the gendarmerie, a secret police. During these horrid years, anywhere between a hundred thousand Armenians to three hundred thousand Armenians were slaughtered, robbed, and kidnapped. It’s easy to say that the sultan was a man of cruelty and racism, but behind every genocide there is a reason and this reason we must understand.
    At the time of the sultan’s rule, the Turks were slowly losing their land and power. Russians, Greeks, Serbians were demanding their freedom. Before the 1700s the Turks were clearly an undefeated nation but as European powers developed powerful weapons, the Turks began losing battle after battle. While these European nations left the Turkish Empire without much of a fight, the Armenians were a different story. The Armenians had been under Turkish rule for so long, their land seemed like Turkish territory. The Turks weren't willing to give up land that seemed almost rightfully theirs. The Turks were also in fear, the Armenians were turning to European powers like Russia for help in gaining justice. This attention from Europeans was a threat to the Turks and their territory so the sultan was willing to harm the Armenians to protect his land. Giving in to Armenians didn't seem to be an option either. Since the rise of Islam, infidels have always been second class citizens, it was never a matter of question. The fact that the Armenians were rebelling was seen as Christians threatening Muslims. So for all these reasons, the sultan carried out his genocide.
    - Linda Zhang
    {} File:Ahamid.jpgHamid the Second
    Black Dog of Fate
    Black Dog of Fate by Peter Balakian is the account of the author’s childhood in America as he tries to combine both his Armenian culture with life in the U.S. As Balakian grows up he starts to realize the connection his family has with the Armenian genocide.
    Here are some quote and ideas I believe are worth noting:
    One time while Peter and his grandmother were on the bus, a fight broke out behind them. A business man was attacking a man in a motorcycle jacket with his cane. Grandmother’s response to this was to stand up and defend the man in the motorcycle jacket, until the bus driver stopped the fight. After the fight, Peter sat in his seat wondering what would motivate his elderly grandmother to stand up for the man. He later came to the realize that it was the genocide that she was a victim of, that caused her to want to stand up for others. Grandmother remembered being persecuted for religious reasons by the Armenians; she therefore made sure that she wasn’t going to watch the same thing happen to others. (p22-23)
    I learned throughout the novel that Armenian victims never forget. You can try to leave the past, but you can’t forget it.
    In the novel Peter’s grandmother says this about the Turks:
    “Good souls are connected with angels and saints. Evil souls with suicides or criminals or Turks.”(p29)
    Peter’s father had a dream three days before he died; this is what he recalls his mother saying in the dream while the family was being deported:
    “When the train starts the lights will go out. Don’t be scared, we’re right here.”(p77)
    Peter says that he knew his father was describing a dream about death and he wished he’d never heard it.
    Peter also says this:
    “After the Genocide, the fear of death was different from the fear of mortality. In this atmosphere of deep anxiety, our family was far from the optimistic mood of suburbia.”(p 88)
    Turkey is in my opinion, ridiculous. They spend hundreds of thousands of dollars a year to prevent facts about the genocide from being in textbooks, talked about in public. I keep thinking of what Peter Balakian said at the video conference. You can never move toward democracy if you’re not willing to admit your mistakes. The Turks are not willing to admit the genocide occurred. Balakian said that nowadays when you open up a Turkish textbook, the very most they will say about the genocide is that if there truly was genocide, the Armenians deserved it.
    So, in the novel Peter Balakian is in high school and he has to do a research project on a country. His father at that point, encouraged his son to research the history of the Armenians. So Peter looked in the World Book and finds that there is only about two hundred words about Armenia. Peter then decides that maybe he could research Turkey because it seemed that he would have more to talk about this way. So for the next few weeks Peter read and read about the Ottoman Turks and Islam and what he found during his research was that none talked about Armenians. Here is an excerpt of Peter’s thoughts:
    “I thought it strange, because Armenians had lived in the land now called Turkey long before the Turks had come. For a minute, the American Indians flashed through my mind. I knew they had been in America before the Europeans came, so I went to the World Book and checked under U.S. history to find that the American Indians were mentioned often and with cross references, and I thought it odd that there were no references to Armenia in all these books on Turkey.”
    Peter ended up handing in his project on Turkey and getting an A. His father was upset that his son had done a project on the Turks, who had been the ones who imposed cruelty and torture on the Armenians. Peter was both humiliated and upset over his father's words. His father had never talked about the genocide or about his past, Peter wished his father had.
    Peter and his father in 1964, took a road trip across the country from New York all the way to the west coast. While in South Dakota, Peter and his father ran across a Sioux chief in front of a souvenir stand. Peter's afther went up to the chief and they both talked about their "homelands", the lands in which they had once lived that was taken away from under them....
    Here is dehumanization….at it’s truest.
    “ The common term applied by the Turk to the Christian is “dog,” and in his ( the Turk’s) estimation this is mere rhetorical figure; he actually looks upon his European neighbors as far less worthy of consideration than his own domestic animals…”My son,” an old Turk once said, “do you see that herd of swine? Some are white, some are black, some are large, some are small- they differ from each other in some respects, but they’re all swine. So it is Christians.”(p153)
    “The Turks erected the several peoples, such as Greeks and the Armenians into separate “millets,” or provinces. And, they did this to promote their independence and welfare, but because they regarded them as vermin, and thus not fit for membership in the Ottoman state”(p154)
    To be Continued….
    - Linda Zhang
    n the New York Times on Thursday, April 22, 2010. I thought it might help you to understand how relevant your research on genocide truly is. We need to study the history to be able to help the future. Ms. Caine
    [[quotation/we-study-the-injustices-of-history-for-the-same/380572.html|We study the injustices of history for the same reason that we study genocide, and for the same reason that psychologists study the minds of murderers and rapists... to understand how those evil things came about.]]”
    I think this quote this whole topic of genocide and even history. - Angela Bujaj
    Nicole Gruber
    The Armenian Genocide took place during World War 1 in the Ottoman Empire. The plan to "get rid" of the Armenians were to deport them and much like in the Holocaust, the Armenians were moved from village to village by Ottoman officials and cleared out of certain areas. (Polarization-step 6) The Armenians were taken away by train or by foot. Their possessions were robbed from them.
    The massacres started to primarily begin in early 1915, when the Turks were being pushed off their land by the Russians.The Turks blamed the Armenians for helping the Russians. The Turks accused the Armenians of treason and decided to "get rid of" and deport all of the Armenians. -This was according to the Minister of the Interior about the reason for the deportation of the Armenians
    Why was the genocide committed?
    1. The Ottoman Empire was weakening and they were afraid that non-Muslims with in the empire would try to take advantage of that. The Turks thought that they had to, in some way, rid the empire of non-Muslim Turks.
    2. The Armenians wanted more freedom and the Ottomans didn't want to give that to them. The Turks, again, were afraid that the Armenians were going to try to get rid of them and they felt that way even more when the Armenians asked for other countries help.
    3. The Ottoman military was weakening as well and it was open to external threats, especially those from Russia and Armenia. The only way the Turks felt they could keep their empire running was to get rid of all the minorities, especially the Christian Armenians.
    4. The Armenians were progressing technologically and were using the European war tactics. The Turks still were old fashioned during WW1. When WW1 began, the Central Powers, including the Ottoman Empire, declared war on Russia. The Armenians tried to escape to Russia and the Turks accused the Armenians for treason. The Turks felt the only way to punish the Armenians was to deport them, or in other words, massacre them

    . {27r.jpg} Besides the killing of the Armenians, Turks sold Armenian women. This is an ad for a young Armenian woman who escaped to America...she is there to tell her story of her life during the genocide.
    {genocidal_turks-773656.gif} What this political cartoon is trying to show is what is ultimately going on right now in the US. The government refuses to call the genocide a genocide because they are afraid they will lose the Turks as allies.
    {armenian-genocide-illustration-by-nino-jose-heredio.jpg} This cartoon is depicting Uncle Sam (the US) looking into a folder of some sort and finding the Armenian Genocide tucked inside. This shows that even when te Turks try to cover it up, it would still come out and it wouldnt be forgotten.
    According to Peter Balakian, there were primary ways of organization used by the Turks for the Armenian Genocide.
    1. Secret Organization The S.O. focused on elimination of Armenian Christians. They hired global killing squads and did that by letting about 30,000 convicts out of jail and let them do what they do best, which was mass kill the Armenians.
    2. Parliment's primary acts -Deportation law
    · arrest and put Armenians on forced marches.
    · called this deportation as a code word for mass killing, like the Nazis did with the word "transport"
    -Temporary law of Confiscation
    · get to take everything and anything from the wealthy and profitable Armenians.
    3. Nationalist Ideology -Turkizism/Turkification
    · people in Turkey had to be purely Muslim/Turkish...master race
    · this was much like Hitler's idea of an Aryan nation.
    4.Technology/Communications -The Turks used trains to deport Armenians. They filled box cars that usually hold 20 animals with over 100 Armenian men, women, and children. They made the Armenians walk through the Syrian Desert as a death march and it is considered the Auschwitz of the Armenian Genocide. -The telegraph was uses for a centralization to what occurred within Turkey. -There was a use of Segmentation in that they first got rid of able bodied Armenian men and did not allow them in the military. They forced them into hard labor and massacred most of them. They then tried to rid of the teachers, priests and scholars.
    5. Turkish government denial of genocide -This is the last stage of genocide in that the Turks deny all of the genocide that happened during World War 1. World War 1 was used as a cover up to what happened to the Armenians, like World War 2 was a cover up to what happened to the Jews. The denial is proof of Turkish nationalism and proof of that they never cared that they kill 1.5 million Armenians, as though they did not have any value but of their religion and ethnicity.
    This video is a great way to learn what happened if you are a visual learner. This video also helps show the denial that occurred and is still occurring to this day. The video is very long but parts can be skipped.
    These links are a great way to figure out the reasons and ways the Turks performed genocide on the Armenians.
    This website gives the chronolgy of the events during the Armenian Genocide Nicole Gruber per. 4
    {social_ed_map.gif} The first picture shows where the Armenians occupied, which happened to be in Anatolia mostly. The second picture continues to show certain areas of Anatolia where the Armenians were murdered in enormous amounts while the Turks began to advance and drive out the Armenians. The third picture shows the small area where Armenians remained after the mass killings. These pictures shows the extend to which the Turks went to to kill all of the Armenians, and how widespread the killings were.
    1. Classification: A lot of evidence backs up the fact that the mass killings in Anatolia could be considered a genocide of the Armenians. The first step of the eight steps of genocide is shown by Ziya Gokalp, who was a member of the CUP, who stated "Greeks, Armenians, and Jews are foreign bodies in the National Turkish state." A statement such as this shows the dislike towards other cultures, which could evenutally lead to something as harsh as genocide.
    2. Symbolism: The Turks began to make the Armenian Christians dress differently than the Turks, that way they could tell them apart. Some of the Armeninans would try and disguise themselves as Turks that way they could try and escape punishment, but most of the times they were discovered, and punished even more for trying to hide.
    3. Dehumanization: Many Armenian victims state that the Turks used different names of hatred to refer to the Armenians, and take away their identities. Drs. Mehmed Nazim and Behaeddin Shakir, which were two Young Turk leaders, referred to the Armenians as "tubercular microbes contaminating the state." Using different names to refer to the different race could be categorized under step three of the eight steps of genocide, which is dehumanization.
    4. Organization: All the members of the Ottoman Empire's goverment made up the Committee of Union and Progress, also referred to as CUP, Unionists, or the Young Turks. These were the people who started the acts against the Armenians, and continued until the genocide. The Special Organization was a specific group of the Young Turks whose main goal was to eliminate the Armenian race. They believed in Nationalist ideology, or Pan-Turkism, where the main belief was that the Turks could only revive themselves by making Turkey homogeneously Turkish and Muslim.
    The Turks used technology and communications to their advantage while trying to eliminate the Armenians. The train was used to bring the Armenians to the Syrian desert. If a train wasn't an option in a specific area, they would use wagons, or have to walk on foot. The telegraph was also very important, because it was one of the newest pieces of technology in its time. It was used to centralize all of Turkey, and make sure everyone was on the same page all over Turkey.
    5. Polarization: When brought to their new destination away from the public eye, men and woman were seperated, to avoid reproduction of the race which they wanted to eliminate. While doing so, the Armenians were denied their protection.
    6. Preparation: The Turks also began to deport the Armenians out of their homes, and bring them into new territories where they could be controlled, which is an example of number six- preparation. The Turks would find any way possible to deport the Armenians to their new location, which was mostly the Syrian Desert. The Armenians were either forced to go by train, wagon, or by foot. If taken by train, about 100 Armenians had to stuff into a cattle cart which was meant to fit about thirty animals. Moving by foot had was also horrible, because they never got a break, and most suffered of dehydration or starvation.
    7. Extermination: Eyewitnesses of the horrific events state that they watched the Turks light women's hair on fire, and watch them burn to death. Killing human beings on purpose of such a manor could be considered step seven- extermination. In certain cases, children were thrown off boats into the water to drown, and babies were smashed against rocks. The Turks created a killing machine, which consisted of a sword and bayonet to kill Armenians one by one.
    8. Denial: The Turks, to this day, still deny that the massacres of the Armenians in 1919-1920. They try to rewrite history, and make it seem like the Armenians caused their own death.
    I found this picture of a Turkish woman holding up a sign that reads, 'We did not commit genocide, we defended the country.' This proves the denial that the Turks have, still to this day. This shows the selfishness of the Turks by not admitting the horrible things they did was plainly for personal gain and did not really help the Turks in anyway. Sure, they kept their land, but did it really need to cost 1.5 million minorities? -Nicole Gruber (I put this in this place just because Briana was already writing about the Turkish denial.)
    {%7B6caf2ba5-59e4-4f10-b6c7-6962c5b51238%7D.jpg} This political cartoon shows how the Turks are doing whatever they can to try and hide the evidence of the Armenian Genocide. While the Armenians are locked up inside what looks like a prison, screaming Genocide!, the Turks are busy trying to hide all the bones, representing the evidence, underneath the Turkish flag.
    The original start of the genocide was because the Turkish Empire was falling more and more each day, and they felt the only way they could survive was to "get rid of those alien peoples", referring to the Armenians.
    This site is very helpful with noticing when certain events in the genocide happened. It includes a timeline with many of the important events, and it also includes many pictures and different videos of the survivors.
    {800px-Armenian_Genocide_Map-en.svg.png} This picture shows all of the deportation sites where the Armenians were taken to when they were taken from their homes.
    April 24th is National Armenian Genocide Day- celebrating all the Armenians who had fallen fighting for the freedom of the Armenians.
    Since the day of rememberance recently just passed, there had been many articles involving the lack of coverage for this memorial day, and people of Armenian descent gather to remember their ancestors who went through the torture of the Turks.
    One man stated, "'I come to show my presence,' Kassabian said. 'To show that this will never be forgotten or swept under the rug.'"
    -Briana Balsamo
    The Turks set out on a mission to destroy the Armenians. The Armenians were discriminated against for simply being Armenians and for being Christians. As the Ottoman Empire declined there was more pressure on the Armenians. During the time of the genocide World War I was going on. This gave the Turks an excuse to kill the Armenians. Although the Turks claim that there was no genocide they practically “tricked” the Armenians.
    “First, the Armenians were asked to turn in hunting weapons for the war effort. Communities were often given quotas and would have to buy additional weapons from Turks to meet their quota. Later, the government would claim these weapons were proof that Armenians were about to rebel. The able bodied men were then "drafted" to help in the wartime effort. These men were either immediately killed or were worked to death. Now the villages and towns, with only women, children, and elderly left were systematically emptied. The remaining residents would be told to gather for a temporary relocation and to only bring what they could carry. The Armenians again obediently followed instructions and were "escorted" by Turkish Gendarmes in death marches.
    The death marches led across Anatolia, and the purpose was clear. The Armenians were raped, starved, dehydrated, murdered, and kidnapped along the way.”
    The Turks killed the Armenians. They took the Armenians out of their homes and send them away to live in horrible conditions.
    [[image:img/Collection%20of%20the%20Armenian%20Genocide%20Museum&Institute%20Archives/12.jpg align="center" caption="Deportation of Refugees" link=""]]
    By killing the men they limited births in the group. All of these actions prove that horrific killings were a genocide.- Angela Bujaj
    Obama and the 95th anniversary of the Armanian Genocide:
    Every year the President of the United States speaks about the Armenian Genocide. This occurs on April 24, this year was the 95th anniversary. This year Obama carefully avoided the word Genocide during his speech. The reason for this is that Turkey is one of the only countries in the Middle East which the United States is still friends with. -by DanielaR.
    President Roosevelts Response to the Genocide:
    After the Armenian Genocide President Roosevelt wrote a letter describing his reaction to the genocide. He was angered that the United Sates was too afraid to not punish Turkey for the massacre of the Armenians and that the U.S. allow them to lie about it and let the Turks help the surviving Armenians right after they had killed them. He believed the only thing that would be right was to go to war with Turkey. He said the United States cannot just sit there and let other countries fight for them. He describes how he is practically embarrased that France and England risked their people and fought the central powers during WW1 and how the United States waited to get involved. So his only solution was to go to war with Turkey and deal with them for the crimes they commited. A very famous quote from this letter was "...the Armenian massacre was the greatest crime of the war, and the failure to act against Turkey is to condone it ... the failure to deal radically with the Turkish horror means that all talk of guaranteeing the future peace of the world is mischievous nonsense. "What he means is, the United States cannot say that there will be peace in the world when there are still horrible acts being done and no one is willing to stop them, if no one is able to stand up and stop them they will continue and there will never be peace!
    Link to full letter>>Full Roosevelt Letter -by DanielaR.
    The Turkish Government and their steps….
    When the Young Turks (CUP) came into power in 1913 they organized the entire government so it could successfully eliminate all the Armenians. They thought of the elimination as a security measure. These are some of the political organizations and steps taken to eliminate the Armenians.
    1.) The Armenians and all Christians were classified by the government as second class citizens. They were treated unfairly. They had to pay higher taxes; they were denied participation in government and were not protected legally or domestically.
    2.) The Turkish government had set up the “Special Organization”. Its entire purpose was to keep under control all non Turkey and non-Muslim races and nationality. They really organized the mass killings.
    3.) When the Ottoman Empire declared war against the Western Power they took advantage of the opportunity to begin the mass killings. When they began their killings many Armenians escaped to Russia. The Young Turks used the excuse that the Armenians were betraying them and helping Russia.
    4.) The Military was set against the Armenians as well. First all men who were Armenian in the military were killed therefore eliminating the Armenian population with a big chance to fight back.
    5.) The government set up groups specifically to do their dirty work and kill the Armenians. They organized the local governments to ready the Armenians and to deport them. When local officials refused they would be replaced by Young Turk officials.
    6.) The Commission of Abandoned Goods took care of all the possessions of the Armenians. They sold them, auctioned them, the government in return gained from the profits. -by DanielaR.
    {} This cartoon is showing the U.S. Senate and House of Representatives disscussing what actions should be taken for the Armenian Genocide...but they are also disscussing whether acts done in history can be considered genocide.
    Armenian Genocide Video: The video is also on the top of the page.
    This is a great video that is a good intro to the genicide. It is very sad, yet it exposes the genicide for what is truely was.It explains how many were killed, the leaders running the genicide, how it started and how it ended. I highly reccomend everyone to watch this before the conferance to learn more about the geniced.
    -Briana T
    Armenian Billboard :
    Maybe Obama is avoiding using the word genocide, but Americans aren't. In Los Angeles there was a billboard mentioning the Armenian Genocide.- Angela Bujaj
    A large movement and decision was made in the case of the Armenian Genocide. An article was recently published explaining that Germany has been found partially guilty in the Armenian Genocide. The article explains that in 1915 Young Turks perpetrated genocide. At the time that this was happening, Germany was “cooperating” and following with the Young Turks. Germany provided the Young Turks with major support. Thus, they were found partially guilty in the actions that took place in the Armenian genocide.
    Follow the link for information about this…
    -Alessandra Grillo
    Period 4
    University of Rhode Island Display:
    The University of Rhode Island is commemorating the 95th anniversary of the Armenian genocide this year with an Armenian Genocide exhibition. It has been taking place since April 1st and will continue until the 30th. People and directors of the university have wanted to celebrate Providence Rhode Island's Armenian community through displays of Armenian culture and history for a long time. They used artwork, pictures, artifacts and other items to help encapsulate the home, religious, and all other aspects of Armenian life, so they could properly illustrate the genocide and its effects.
    I think this display is a very good idea, and will help get out some info to people about the Armenian genocide. I feel that some people still don't know that the Armenians suffered through a genocide, or that they don't know a lot of details reguarding the genocide. I am happy that people are not letting the horrible murders of Armenian people go unnoticed.
    Here's the link discussing the plans for the university's exhibit: The Armenian Genocide: 95 Years - Olivia p.4
    The Turkish Government today still does not believe that the Armenian Genocide is an actual genocide. Many of these peoplpe believe it was just part of the war. When World War I had started, there were 2 million Armenians. By the year 1922 there were only about 400,000 Armenians left! But the Turks still do believe it was not a genocide. They say that there was no systematic attempt to destroy these people. America has yet to classify these mass kilings as a genocide due to our alliance with Turkey. Also when France had done something similar to this, Turkey removed their military ties with them.
    For more information on this topic, please view this New York Time's Article.
    -Lauren Tartaglia
    Genicide Website:
    This website is very good, it contains articles about the Armenian genicide that are very imformative. It also has pictures and advertisements that are against genicide. One has many books of the Ottomons empire on a shelf with one missing. This is the book that tells of the genocide. Everyone should definateley check this website out!
    -Briana Travers
    The US just recently recognized the killings in Armenia as a gonocide in the beginning of March. Turkey's prime minister said he was concerned about what this could do to the ties between the US and Turkey. Turkey helps the US in resolving the conflicts in Iran and Afghanistan, so losing Turkey as an ally would make it more difficult to deal with problems in the Middle East. - Nina Kozak
    Here's the link to the article discussing what Turkey could possibly do next:
    Pre Genocide
    The Historic Armenians lived in Modern Day Turkey for 3,000 years. Since 11th Century A.D., the Turkish Tribal Armies prevailed over the Christian Armenians. The Armenians were forced to be subjects to the Turkish Empire. The Ottoman Empire imposed a harsh hierarchal society (they were forced to be second class citizens). Even before the Genocide, thousands of Christians were put to death. In 1860, Muslim and Druze forces killed 40,000 Maronite Christians. In 1876, Turkish forces slaughtered 15,000 Bulgarian civilians. Following a series of defeats in Africa and Europe, the Ottoman Empire became known as the “sick man of Europe”. They lost land in the Russo-Turkish War of 1887-78, the Anglo-French displacement of Turkish rule in Egypt during 1879, and in 1896 the Cretan insurrection and Greco-Turkish war leading to the Turkish evacuation of Crete in 1898. To solve their problems in Europe, first they had to deal with the “Armenian Problem”. In 1894, 3 Armenian villages at Sassan near Lake Van refused to pay double taxes so the Ottoman Government sent in 4 Hamidiye cavalries that couldn’t put down this revolt. In response to this the Sultan sent in 12 army battalions and “immense” massacres took place with no discretion for age or sex. Troops burned civilians alive and bayoneted others. 60 women were murdered and raped in a church and a total of 8,000 women killed. In 1895, Macedonian revolutionaries began a terror campaign against Ottoman occupation. The Police acting on secret orders from the palace equipped the Muslim Mobs with “secret weapons”. Hundreds of Armenians were murdered, in the next 3-4 months there were 41massacres in Armenian Communities. From 1894-1896, 80,000 to 100,000 Armenians died and it was not even the genocide yet. The few survivors were forcibly converted to Islam.
    Post Genocide
    After the Armenian Genocide, the Young Turks still neglected the Armenians from ever recovering their dignity or liberty. The Young Turks destroyed nearly every Armenian Family leaving many orphans. Former Turkish officers could take as many of these orphans (primarily young girls) as they liked. "The Armenian nation was saved only through the direct delivery of American relief aid to the "starving Armenians." Millions of dollars were collected in the United States to feed and house the destitute Armenians, both in the Middle East and in Russia, where tens if thousands took refuge. Hundreds of thousands eventually received some sort of aid, be it food, clothing, shelter, employment, resettlement, or emigration to the United States and elsewhere. (Rouben Paul Adalian)" Despite this the Armenians had nothing to do and nowhere to go. In the Holocaust the Jews were saved by the Russians and Americans; but that did not happen here. No one came to save the Armenians from the Turks. The Young Turks had claimed all of their land and if an Armenian went back to his property, he was driven out again by the Nationalist Turks who rose to power after World War 1. The Armenians could no longer live on their historic homeland and were forced to spread to around the world. - Micheal Kenny
    A great website with current events dealing with the Armenian Genocide (click on press releases in the sidebar on the left to see current events)
    Armenian Genocide Eyewitness Accounts:
    Here’s a link to some Armenian Genocide Eyewitness Accounts
    - The people give accounts near time of retirement and memoirs good for evidence of Armenian genocide study and classification
    - Only problem is that the accounts came from people who were only children or very young adults so their thoughts could have had a narrow frame of reference
    - The amount of time that went on from the time of the genocide to the time of confession can also be an issue in that their memory may fade- I don’t feel this way, maybe a few last names would be forgotten, or a few places, but I think someone who goes through an experience like the Armenian Genocide would hold onto important memories forever.
    - Olivia p.4
    There are memorials for the Armenian Genocide all around the world, which proves that people all over were affected by the horrors that the Armenians faced. When the genocide came to an end, the Armenians were forced to move to other countries. They were able to spread their stories and people became aware of what had happened to the Armenian race.
    Here's a link to pictures of the various memorials: -Nina Kozak
    This picture shows some background information and a timeline. It is a nice way to put some important parts of the genocide and its aftermath in an image. - Angela Bujaj
    As discussed earlier by Linda Zhang, Abdul Hamid was an Ottoman Emperor who fought against the Armenians who were seeking reform and better treatment in the Ottoman empire. The Ottomans were fearful of them collaborating with European powers to work against them. It’s said that 100,000- 300,000 Armenians were massacred during Hamids attack on them.
    Here is a political cartoon that I feel is symbolizing how Hamid was seeking more power for the Turks, and to stop the decline of the empire, but all of the massacres he carried out against the Armenians in the Ottoman Empire did not help him or his empire. The killings accomplished nothing, and he was leading an empire that was seemingly cruel, and still having troubles despite his efforts. The “trophies of his reign” as said by Wahre Jacob the illustrator, were innocent dead people.
    - Olivia p.4
    Armenian Genocide – Western Reactions/Responses -Raylla Chan
    Armenian Genocide – Western Reactions/Responses -Raylla Chan
    America was the first to recognize the Armenian killings. Raphael Limpkin had coined the term “genocide” as a mass killing and extermination of a specific group of people or culture.

    The Allied Powers (Great Britain, France, and Russia) declared that the leaders who have planned and carried out the genocide will be held personally responsible for their actions. They had also commanded Turnkey to stop the genocide immediately, but these warnings did not stop them and had not effect at all.
    Christian missionaries from America were always threatened with death so they were unable to the Armenians. They did though witness what was happening in the genocide and spread the news about it while they were horrified.
    Help make a difference, and let the world know and accept the truth!
    -Kristin Michels APWORLD Per. 9
    Although graphic, this photo displays how the Ottoman empire had no limits when subjecting the Armenian race to attrocious conditions. Children
    were pushed along to their deaths showing the immortality of the declining Ottoman Empire.
    Sam Longlade Period 1 AP World
    htmldiff1United Kingdom, France and Russia notified the leaders of the Turkish Youths that serian responsible for a crime against the humanity. At final of the war, the victorious allies demanded al Ottoman Government that cited before the justice to the Youths Turkish defendants by crimes of war. Also efforts were carried out for socorrer to the armenians that morían by starvation. The governments of the United States of America, United Kingdom and Germany sponsored the preparation of reports on the committed atrocities and many of these they were given to publicity. Nevertheless, any measure was taken against the State of Turkey, be to sanction it or to rescue al armenian town of the extermination. Besides, neither any measure against the
    htmldiff2It can be said that the Armenian Geocide indirectly feuled the
    htmldiff5htmldiff6 htmldiff7htmldiff8
    Analyst Equates Armenian Genocide to Britney Spears
    March 6th, 2008 by hyeoctane
    **John C.K. Daly** is an analyst for the Jamestown Foundation, a right-wing think tank created during the Cold War era. He is also an arrogant denier of the Armenian Genocide.
    In a recent talk given in Washington, DC, Daly attempted to present the Armenian Genocide as a “disputed” issue with a questionable basis of support. As evidence of this, he cited an **obscure website** which presents an 1871 Russian painting as proof of the 1915 Genocide. Not only does using such random internet sites to back an argument (while ignoring the vast documentary and scholarly record) go against elementary academic principles, but it is patently ridiculous to suggest that such anecdotes somehow challenge the **overwhelming academic consensus** on the murder of 1.5 million innocent human beings.
    Daly’s talk contained many other distortions and insulting statements, such as his suggestion that the Armenian Genocide is “the historical equivalent of **Britney Spears**.” Other innacuracies include his claim that Armenia did not respond to Turkey’s offer to form a historical commission to study the Genocide (Yerevan actually offered to discuss the matter in a bilateral context of normalized relations) or the assertion that Armenian genocide legislation has never passed in Congress (for the facts, see Sec. 2, article 20 and 22 of **H.Res.106**).
    For more on Daly’s junk scholarship and apologetics for Turkey, you can view his report, //**U.S.-Turkish Relations: A Strategic Relationship Under Stress**//. For his support of Pan-Turkism as a worthy goal, see his article, **“The Rebirth of Pan-Turkism,”** in the Eurasia Daily Monitor.
    Brian Cimons- This shows how some people, even in America, believe that the Armenian Genocide never occured.
    Every year on the day of the start of the Genocide, descendants and those affected by the Genocide live the day in mourning in honor to those who lost their lives. I think that putting up monuments and spreading the word of the Genocide guilts and pressures the Turkey government to admit the tradgedy.
    -Fred Schmidt
    This photo is an example of an Ottoman nationalist rally. It was strong nationalism like this which led to the Armenian Genocide.
    -Fred Schmidt
    To deal with the Armenian national awakening, the Ottomans gradually gave more rights to its Armenian and other Christian citizens. In 1863 the Armenian National Constitution (Ottoman Turkish:"Nizâmnâme-i Millet-i Ermeniyân") was the Ottoman Empire approved form of the "Code of Regulations" composed of 150 articles drafted by the "Armenian intelligentsia", which defined the powers of Patriarch (position in Ottoman Millet) and newly formed "**Armenian National Assembly**".[5] The reformist period peaked with the Constitution, called the Kanûn-ı Esâsî (meaning "Basic Law" in Ottoman Turkish), written by members of the Young Ottomans, which was promulgated on 23 November 1876. It established freedom of belief and equality of all citizens before the law. Armenian National Assembly formed a "governance in governance" to eliminate the aristocratic dominance (Amira) of the Armenian nobles by development of the political strata among the Armenian society.[6]
    Although you might say Wikipedia is not a good source, I took this from wikipedia. I bolded all of the statements I found interesting because they seem to defend the Ottomans.
    The Armenians also established a National Assembly which I connect to the French Revolution. The Ottoman government might have looked at this from a historical prespective and got worried that the small Armenian population would rebel.
    Fred Schmidt
    This video is very interesting and moving. It is a tad long, but it is very informal, and worth watching. It explains the relationships between each nation that are causing the countries to not label the catastrophic event a genocidal event m/videoplay?docid=-7833166317264817428&hl=en#
    Kristin Michels
    {} This is a picture of one of the many Armenian genocide monuments throughout the world. This particular monument symbolizes the victims of the Armenian Genocide, in which some 1.5 million Armenians perished at Turkish hands between 1915 and 1916. This monument can be found on the rocks above the city of Bikfaya in the Lebanese mountains. It is important because it shows that the Armenian genocide is being recognized and that steps are being taken in order to provide for a greater remembrance of the millions of Armenians who lost their lives during these brutal times. Bianca Troncone Period 9 AP World
    The Armenian Genocide proved to be one of the main influences in the Genocide of the Jews during World War II. Hitler after seeing the effect that the Turkish government had on the Amenians, gained similar strategies in mass murder and the total extemination of Jews. Armenia in the 1930's was not a well known genocide, and very few countries acknowledged it as a genocide. One of Hitlers most famous quotes about the Armenian Genocide can be found in his staement for his plan for Jews in Poland:
    "I have placed my death-head formations in readiness - for the present only in the East - with orders to them to send to death mercilessly and without compassion , men, women, and children of Polish derivation and language. Only thus shall we gain the living space (lebensraum) which we need.Who, after all, speaks today of the annihilation of the Armenians?" {} Adolph Hitler 1936
    Hitler making his speech about Poland,
    and his reference to the Armenian Genocide.
    -Anna Crowley
    Colorado Activists Make Genocide Affirmation Key Issue in Elections
    Initiated by the Armenians of Colorado, the local government adopted General Assembly resolution marked the 95th anniversary of the Armenian Genocide in the Centennial State, reported the Armenian National Committee of America.
    Noting the murder of 1.5 million Armenians from 1915-23 and the Turkish government’s continued efforts to “deny and distort the facts of the genocide, honor the perpetrators of that crime against humanity as national heroes, and persecute its citizens who acknowledge or even allude to the Armenian Genocide,” Senate Joint Resolution 10-038 designated April 24, 2010 and every April 24th thereafter as a “Day of Remembrance of the Armenian Genocide.”
    Governor of Colorado, Bill Ritter, released a statement saying that if we commemorate past events like the Holocaust and the Armenian Genocide, it will create more tolerance in the ever changing world we live in today. Denver Mayor John Hickenlooper released a statement saying that the world must act upon the people who do not believe in this genocide and no one should consider the Armenian incident in the early twentieth century anything but genocide.
    Sam Longlade AP World Period 1
    This short documentary is a quick summary of important points of the Armenian Genocide.
    Sam Longlade AP World Period 1
    It is easy to say that many people died of hunger in the Armenian Genocide, but we must be able to visualize the affects of hunger on the human body to fully understand the tragedy. Starvation was a method of mass killing used by the Ottomans. This photo was taken from and is a picture of an Armenian victim.
    -Fred Schmidt
    This is what Armenia used to be.
    -Fred Schmidt
    -Brian Cimons
    The Armenian Genocide
    The atrocities committed against the Armenian people of the Ottoman Empire during W.W.I are called the Armenian Genocide. Genocide is the organized killing of a people for the express purpose of putting an end to their collective existence. Because of its scope, genocide requires central planning and a machinery to implement it. This makes genocide the quintessential state crime as only a government has the resources to carry out such a scheme of destruction.
    A common scene of hangings of Armenians in Ottoman Turkey. Source:
    The genocide of the Armenians was centrally planned and administered by the Turkish government against the entire Armenian population of the Ottoman Empire. Preceded by massacres of 200,000 Armenians in 1894-96 and of more than 30,000 in 1909, the main phase of Genocide was carried out during W.W.I between the years 1915 and 1918. The Armenian people were subjected to deportation, expropriation, abduction, torture, massacre, and starvation. The great bulk of the Armenian population was forcibly removed from Armenia and Anatolia to Syria, where the vast majority was sent into the desert to die of thirst and hunger. Large numbers of Armenians were methodically massacred throughout the Ottoman Empire. Women and children were abducted and horribly abused. The entire wealth of the Armenian people was expropriated. After only a little more than a year of calm at the end of W.W.I, the atrocities were renewed between 1920 and 1923, and the remaining Armenians were subjected to further massacres and expulsions. In 1915, thirty-three years before UN Genocide Convention was adopted, the Armenian Genocide was condemned by the international community as a crime against humanity.
    Centres of the masscres. Circle sizes are relative to the number of the people who were slauhgtered. Source: Armenia: A Historical Atlas by Robert H. Hewsen
    On the night of April 24, 1915, the Turkish government placed under arrest over 200 Armenian community leaders in Constantinople. Hundreds more were apprehended soon after. They were all sent to prison in the interior of Anatolia, where most were summarily executed. The Young Turk regime had long been planning the Armenian Genocide and reports of atrocities being committed against the Armenians in the eastern war zones had been filtering in during the first months of 1915. The Ministry of War had already acted on the government's plan by disarming the Armenian recruits in the Ottoman Army, reducing them to labor battalions and working them under conditions equaling slavery. The incapacitation and methodic reduction of the Armenian male population, as well as the summary arrest and execution of the Armenian leadership marked the earliest stages of the Armenian Genocide. These acts were committed under the cover of a news blackout on account of the war and the government proceeded to implement its plans to liquidate the Armenian population with secrecy. Therefore, the Young Turks regime's true intentions went undetected until the arrests of April 24. As the persons seized that night included the most prominent public figures of the Armenian community in the capital city of the Ottoman Empire, everyone was alerted about the dimensions of the policies being entertained and implemented by the Turkish government. Their death presaged the murder of an ancient civilization. April 24 is, therefore, commemorated as the date of the unfolding of the Armenian Genocide.
    Distribution of native Armenian population in the region before (1914) and after (1926) the Genocide. Source: Armenia: A Historical Atlas by Robert H. Hewsen
    The decision to carry out a genocide against the Armenian people was made by the political party in power in the Ottoman Empire. This was the Committee of Union and Progress (CUP) (or Ittihad ve Terakki Jemiyeti), popularly known as the Young Turks. Three figures from the CUP controlled the government; Mehmet Talaat, Minister of the Interior in 1915 and Grand Vizier (Prime Minister) in 1917; Ismail Enver, Minister of War; Ahmed Jemal, Minister of the Marine and Military Governor of Syria. This Young Turk triumvirate relied on other members of the CUP appointed to high government posts and assigned to military commands to carry out the Armenian Genocide. In addition to the Ministry of War and the Ministry of the Interior, the Young Turks also relied on a newly-created secret outfit which they manned with convicts and irregular troops, called the Special Organization (Teshkilati Mahsusa). Its primary function was the carrying out of the mass slaughter of the deported Armenians. In charge of the Special Organization was Behaeddin Shakir, a medical doctor. Moreover, ideologists such as Zia Gokalp propagandized through the media on behalf of the CUP by promoting Pan-Turanism, the creation of a new empire stretching from Anatolia into Central Asia whose population would be exclusively Turkic. These concepts justified and popularized the secret CUP plans to liquidate the Armenians of the Ottoman Empire. The Young Turk conspirators, other leading figures of the wartime Ottoman government, members of the CUP Central Committee, and many provincial administrators responsible for atrocities against the Armenians were indicted for their crimes at the end of the war. The main culprits evaded justice by fleeing the country. Even so, they were tried in absentia and found guilty of capital crimes. The massacres, expulsions, and further mistreatment of the Armenians between 1920 and 1923 were carried by the Turkish Nationalists, who represented a new political movement opposed to the Young Turks, but who shared a common ideology of ethnic exclusivity.
    A refugee camp of orphaned Armenian children. Source:
    It is estimated that one and a half million Armenians perished between 1915 and 1923. There were an estimated two million Armenians living in the Ottoman Empire on the eve of W.W.I. Well over a million were deported in 1915. Hundreds of thousands were butchered outright. Many others died of starvation, exhaustion, and epidemics which ravaged the concentration camps. Among the Armenians living along the periphery of the Ottoman Empire many at first escaped the fate of their countrymen in the central provinces of Turkey. Tens of thousands in the east fled to the Russian border to lead a precarious existence as refugees. The majority of the Armenians in Constantinople, the capital city, were spared deportation. In 1918, however, the Young Turk regime took the war into the Caucasus, where approximately 1,800,000 Armenians lived under Russian dominion. Ottoman forces advancing through East Armenia and Azerbaijan here too engaged in systematic massacres. The expulsions and massacres carried by the Nationalist Turks between 1920 and 1922 added tens of thousands of more victims. By 1923 the entire landmass of Asia Minor and historic West Armenia had been expunged of its Armenian population. The destruction of the Armenian communities in this part of the world was total.
    Links to some sites about the Armenian Genocide
    Armenian Genocide Institute - Museum
    Armenina National Institute
    Committee for the Recognition of the Armenian Genocide
    Genocidio Armenio ---- (in Italian)
    __www.genocide.ru__ -- (in Russian)
    Facts about genocide for teachers
    ABC NEWS 1999-2002
    Turkish Crimes Against Humanity
    The Zorian Institute
    The Armenian Embassy's view about the genocide commited in Turkey in the early 1900's
    -Brian Cimons
    In an intimate ceremony, around 20 people from an Armenian bilingual Agos weekly of assassinated Turkish Armenian editor commemorated 94th anniversary of the Armenian Genocide in Istanbul at Hrant Dink’s tomb.
    Kristin Michels AP WORLD PER .9
    We need to make a difference. This article is very realistic, and this topic is "...a cancer in every armenians heart." It is a Very Interesting article that adresses many things that we, as people who are educated in this massacre, need to do.
    Kristin Michels
    Were there witnesses to the American Genocide?
    There are many witnesses to the Armenian Genocide. Although the Young Turk government took precautions and imposed restrictions on reporting and photographing, there were lots of foreigners in the Ottoman Empire who witnessed the deportations. Foremost among them were the U.S. diplomatic representatives and American missionaries. They were the first to send news to the outside world about the unfolding genocide. Some of their reports made headline news in the American and Western media. Also reporting on the atrocities committed against the Armenians were many German eye witnesses. The Germans were the allies of the Turks in WWI. Numerous German officers held important military assignments in the Ottoman Empire. Some among them condoned the Young Turk policy. Others confidentially reported to their superiors in Germany about the slaughter of the Armenian civilian population. Many Russians saw for themselves the devastation wreaked upon the Armenian communities when the Russian army occupied parts of Anatolia. Many Arabs in Syria where most of the deportees were sent saw for themselves the appalling condition to which the Armenian survivors had been reduced. Lastly, many Turkish officials were witnesses as participants in the Armenian Genocide. A number of them gave testimony under oath during the post-war tribunals convened to try the Young Turk conspirators who organized the Armenian Genocide.
    Bianca Troncone Period 9 AP World
    Despite Turkish denial, there is no doubt about the Armenian Genocide. For example, German ambassador Count von Wolff-Metternich, Turkey's ally in World War I, wrote his government in 1916 saying: "The Committee [of Union and Progress] demands the annihilation of the last remnants of the Armenians and the [Ottoman] government must bow to its demands."
    -Bianca Troncone Period 9 AP World
    The Swedish parliament has just recognized the massacres of Armenians during World War I as genocide, immediately sparking a diplomatic row with Turkey.
    Depicted in the picture above are some of the millions of devastated Armenian faces who later became victims of the Armenian genocide.
    Bianca Troncone Period 9 AP World
    Why is the Armenian Genocide commemorated on April 24?
    On the night of April 24, 1915, the Turkish government placed under arrest over 200 Armenian community leaders in Constantinople. Hundreds more were apprehended soon after. They were all sent to prison in the interior of Anatolia, where most were summarily executed. The Young Turk regime had long been planning the Armenian Genocide and reports of atrocities being committed against the Armenians in the eastern war zones had been filtering in during the first months of 1915. The Ministry of War had already acted on the government’s plan by disarming the Armenian recruits in the Ottoman Army, reducing them to labor battalions and working them under conditions equaling slavery. The incapacitation and methodic reduction of the Armenian male population, as well as the summary arrest and execution of the Armenian leadership marked the earliest stages of the Armenian Genocide. These acts were committed under the cover of a news blackout on account of the war and the government proceeded to implement its plans to liquidate the Armenian population with secrecy. Therefore, the Young Turks regime’s true intentions were undetected until the arrests of April 24. As the persons seized that night included the most prominent public figures of the Armenian community in the capital city of the Ottoman Empire, everyone was alerted about the dimensions of the policies being entertained and implemented by the Turkish government. Their death presaged the murder of an ancient civilization. April 24, is therefore, commemorated as the date of the unfolding of the Armenian Genocide.
    Bianca Troncone Period 9 AP World
    Timeline of Events
    This is a timeline of the horrific events that took place during the Armenian Genocide. It was helpful because it put all the pieces in order, and it painted me a clear picture, even if it was extremely terrifying to think about.
    Kristin Michels Per. 9 AP World
    In the beginning of March 2010, the House of Representatives passed a nonbinding resolution 23 to 22 even though it was against the Obama administration.
    By Sam Longlade Period 1 AP World
    Brian Cimons- This is one of the books by Balakian, who is one of the leading scholars about the Armenian genocide
    George Karagiannakis wrote a letter dated February the sixth 1994, about the incredible allegations about the Armenians during the 1915 massacres, which are denied the label genocide in Turkey and other countries. He states that the Turkish had reason to revolt against their Armenian citizens because of the Armenian alliances with the Ottoman’s enemies. They lined up at the Russian line and the Ottoman’s took them down one by one. Karagiannakis claims that the Armenians inflicted as much damage as the Ottoman’s did to them. The Armenians were a so called threat to security and that’s why the Ottoman’s felt it was a necessity to wipe them out of the Ottoman population.
    Sam Longlade AP World Period 1
    Some interesting points and quotes I found from an Armenian Genocide Fact Sheet on
    Count von Wolff-Metternich, the German Ambassador, wrote this in 1916 "The committee [of union and progress] demands the annihilation of the last remanants of the Armenaians and the [Ottoman] government must bow to its demands."
    The Turkish government of Damad Ferit Pasha did recognize the Armenian genocide. One Turkish political recognition is more than enough!
    Henry Morgenthau Sr, the neutral American ambassador to the Ottoman Empire, sent this to the U.S. State Dept in 1915:
    “Deportation of and excesses against peaceful Armenians is increasing and from harrowing reports of eye witnesses it appears that a campaign of race extermination is in progress under a pretext of reprisal against rebellion”
    This eyewitness, neutral, account is an excellent example of hardcopy evidence.
    Fred Schmidt

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    Dr. David Pettigrew, Professor of Philosophy, Southern Connecticut State University
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    Dr. Peter Balakian, Donald M. and Constance H. Rebar Professor of Humanities, Colgate University
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    Dr. William Schabas, Professor of International Law and and Director of the Irish Centre for Human Rights, National University of Ireland
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    Dr. Alex Hinton, Professor and Executive Director of the Center for the Study of Genocide, Conflict Resolutions and Human Rights, Rutgers University
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    Laura Jones, Sudan Policy Analyst at the Enough Project, Washington, D.C., USA
    Rwanda= htmldiff1*
    Dr. Gregory Stanton, Research Professor in Genocide Studies and Prevention, George Mason University
    htmldiff1=June 18 (9:00-10:00am EST): Culminating Conference (presentation of action projects)=
    htmldiff1=Participating Schools:= htmldiff1= = htmldiff1=Arlington High School, Arlington, TX, USA= htmldiff1=Chosen-Hill School, Churchdown, Gloucester, UK= htmldiff1=Eastchester High School, Eastchester, NY, USA = htmldiff1=Liceo Giotto Ulivi, Florence, Italy= htmldiff1=SAI International School, Orissa, India= htmldiff1=Science Park High School, Newark, NJ, USA= htmldiff1=Tallwood High School, Virginia Beach, VA, USA= htmldiff1=Walter Payton College Prep, Chicago, IL, USA= htmldiff1=Wootton Bassett School, Lime Kiln, Wiltshire, UK =
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    htmldiff1----htmldiff1=Videoconference Schedule:= htmldiff1= = htmldiff1= = htmldiff1= = htmldiff1= = htmldiff1=April 20 (9:00-10:15am EST): The 8 Stages of Genocide= htmldiff1*
    Dr. Gregory Stanton, Research Professor in Genocide Studies and Prevention, George Mason University
    htmldiff1=April 26 (9:00-10:15am EST): Genocide In Bosnia= htmldiff1*
    Dr. David Pettigrew, Professor of Philosophy, Southern Connecticut State University
    htmldiff1=April 29 (8:00-9:15am EST): Armenian Genocide = htmldiff1*
    Dr. Peter Balakian, Donald M. and Constance H. Rebar Professor of Humanities, Colgate University
    htmldiff1=May 6 (9:00 - 10:15am EST): Genocide in Bosnia= htmldiff1*
    Dr. William Schabas, Professor of International Law and and Director of the Irish Centre for Human Rights, National University of Ireland
    htmldiff1=May 19 (9:00 - 10:15am EST): Genocide in Cambodia= htmldiff1*
    Dr. Alex Hinton, Professor and Executive Director of the Center for the Study of Genocide, Conflict Resolutions and Human Rights, Rutgers University
    htmldiff1=May 25 (9:00-10:15am EST): Genocide in Darfur= htmldiff1*
    Laura Jones, Sudan Policy Analyst at the Enough Project, Washington, D.C., USA
    htmldiff1=June 9 (9:00-10:15am EST): Genocide in Rwanda= htmldiff1*
    Dr. Gregory Stanton, Research Professor in Genocide Studies and Prevention, George Mason University
    htmldiff1=June 18 (9:00-10:00am EST): Culminating Conference (presentation of action projects)=
    htmldiff1=Participating Schools:= htmldiff1= = htmldiff1=Arlington High School, Arlington, TX, USA= htmldiff1=Chosen-Hill School, Churchdown, Gloucester, UK= htmldiff1=Eastchester High School, Eastchester, NY, USA = htmldiff1=Liceo Giotto Ulivi, Florence, Italy= htmldiff1=SAI International School, Orissa, India= htmldiff1=Science Park High School, Newark, NJ, USA= htmldiff1=Tallwood High School, Virginia Beach, VA, USA= htmldiff1=Walter Payton College Prep, Chicago, IL, USA= htmldiff1=Wootton Bassett School, Lime Kiln, Wiltshire, UK =
    htmldiff1= = htmldiff1=How to Get to the Research Pages= htmldiff1* Click the link for the page you want in the left-hand side navigation menuhtmldiff1* Scroll down and click the List Pages link under Space Contentshtmldiff1* Click the name of the page you want to visithtmldiff2

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